HISTORY OF THE
AUTHOR AND EDITOR
ahomaa W. Virhurll
Commissioner of Public Schools
<SJht look la Writtrn
FOR TOILING EDUCATORS
JOY IN SERVICE
CHARACTER AND ACHIEVEMENT
Several months ago, I was invited to assist in the chapel
exercises at the Rhode Island Normal School. At the close
of the brief service, I was asked by Principal Alger to speak
a word as to the early days of the present school, to which I
gladly responded in words of congratulation and of historic
Principal Alger then invited me to visit the session of the
Senior class and I was introduced by him as a former
Commissioner of Public Schools. Singularly, the class was
studying the story of the State Normal School and I "Was
urged to occupy the period of recitation by a review of the
school history. This I did to the apparent gratification of
the principal and the class, all of whom stated that they found
it difficult to discover the facts of the founding. I endeav-
ored to make very clear to the class, the reasons for the
failure of the first school, and the conditions in educational
affairs in Rhode Island in the interim, between the first and
second schools. The suggestion was then made that I ought
to write a history of the Normal School, inasmuch as I was
the only survivor of the active educational workers of that
period, and the only one intimately acquainted with all the
details of its founding. I made a half promise that, some day,
6 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary wakened the
sleeping memories of the birth of the school, and the presence
of Principal Greenough, his assistants and a large body of the
early graduates made the days of the struggle and triumph
so near and vivid that a voice seemed to say "Write," and I
have written with the same heart service that I gave to the
upbuilding of a great institution, in a former day, of small
beginnings, but of large Hope.
I have made the personal pronoun occupy as modest a
position as possible.
THOMAS W. BICKNELL.
Providence, R. I.,
Nov. i, 1911.
O ? <
The First Normal School in the
Birth of the Normal Idea in the United States.
The first suggestion by an American educator, so far as I
can learn, as to the need of trained teachers was made in the
Massachusetts Magazine, June, 1789, in an article written
probably by Elisha Ticknor.*
This article recognized the importance of preparing "young
gentlemen for college and school keeping," that they may be
able to teach the branches they propose to teach "with ease
In 1816, Professor Denison Olmstead of Yale College de-
livered an oration on "The State of Education in Connecticut,''
in which he outlined a plan of "A Seminary for School-
masters," supported by the State. "The pupils were to study
what they were to teach, partly for acquiring a more perfect
knowledge of these subjects and partly for learning from the
methods adopted by the principal, the best methods of teach-
In 1823, Professor James L. Kingsley of Yale College wrote
an article on "The Common Schools of Connecticut," in which
he urged that "a superior school be maintained in each county
* Rise and Growth of the Normal School Idea, Bureau of Educa-
tion, Washington, Circular No. 8, 1891.
8 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
of the State, where all of those who aspire to teach in the com-
mon schools may be themselves thoroughly instructed/'*
The same year, Professor William Russell, of Connecticut,
published a pamphlet on the importance of a seminary for
teachers, in which he indorsed Professor Kingsley's plan and
said, "no individual should be accepted as an instructor who
has not received a license or degree from the proposed institu-
tion. The effects of such an improvement in education would
Samuel R. Hall, the Pioneer.
To Rev. Samuel R. Hall, belongs the honor of being the
pioneer in opening the first school for the training of teachers
in Concord, Vt, in March, 1823.
His first school in Bethel, Maine, 1815, showed his fine
ability to teach and govern a school, and after eight years
experience in the school room as a teacher, he felt qualified
when called upon, to train teachers for their work. Mr. Hall
taught in Concord, Vt., until July, 1830, when he opened an
institution for teachers in Andover, Mass., continuing that
school until 1837, when he opened another in Plymouth, Mass.,
which he conducted until 1840.
Samuel R. Hall prepared a series of talks on teaching and
governing children, which were considered so valuable that
he was urged to publish them, which he did, in a book, entitled
"Lectures to Schoolmasters on Teaching," 1829. In the
preface, Mr. Hall says: "Let the characters of teachers be
improved and improvement in the schools will follow of course.
To accomplish this object, it is desirable that institutions
should be established for educating teachers, where they
should be taught not only the necessary branches of literature,
but be made acquainted with the science of teaching and the
* North American Review, April, 1823.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 9
mode of governing a school with success. The general man-
agement of a school should be a subject of much study, be-
fore anyone engages in the employment of teaching." Neither
Horace Mann nor Henry Barnard ever stated the ends and
the value of normal training more clearly or strongly. This
little primer of Pedagogy had a great sale in the United
States and Canada, the State of New York ordered an edition
of 10,000 copies, one to be placed on the teacher's desk of
every school in the State, and the State Committee on
Education of Kentucky recommended that a copy be
given to every teacher in the State at public expense. For a
brief outline of the contents of this first book written for
American teachers by Rev. Samuel R. Hall, the founder of
the first school for teachers in Concord, Vt.*
First Normal School in Massachusetts.
James G. Carter of Boston, was called by Prof. Emerson
"the father of Normal Schools in Massachusetts," and Dr.
Barnard says that to him "more than to any other person
belongs the credit of providing for the training of competent
teachers in that state."
A series of essays in the Boston Patriot in the winter of
1824-5 stirred Massachusetts and the educators and the people
of all the other states to the vast benefits flowing from normal
training and practice. Mr. Carter opened a school for train-
ing teachers at Lancaster, Mass., in 1827, four years after
Mr. Hall's school was opened in Vermont; both the town and
the State withheld expected aid and Mr. Carter's training
school was abandoned. In 1835, Mr. Carter was elected a
member of the Massachusetts Legislature, and in 1836, as
Chairman for the Committee on Education, he urged the
establishment of a seminary for the professional training of
* See Barnard's Journal of Education, Vol. 5.
io RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
teachers. In 1837, he drew the bill providing for a State
Board of Education, and in 1838, Mr. Carter's speeches and
influence turned the scale in favor of the passage of the
Normal School Bill, under which the first State Normal
School was established at Lexington, Mass., July 3, 1839, with
three students, under the leadership of the first great Secretary
of the Board of Education of that State, Hon. Horace Mann.
The second State Normal School of Massachusetts was opened
at Barre, Worcester County, Sept. 4, 1839, an< 3 tne third at
Bridgewater, Sept. 9, 1840. For the support of the three
schools, Hon. Edmund Dwight of Boston gave $10,000 and
the State of Massachusetts an equal sum, $20,000 in all.
Normal Idea Leaders.
The Normal idea the training of teachers in the Theory
and Practice of Teaching germinal in the minds of Samuel
R. Hall and Horace Mann had taken root, first in the little
town of Concord, Vt, in 1823, and at Lexington, Mass.,
sixteen years later. It is of interest to note the pictures of
the old building in which both schools were established, one
of which is still standing. The Normal idea was in the air
and advocated by men of commanding influence throughout
New England, the Middle States and in Ohio and Kentucky,
in 1840. Horace Mann, Rev. W. E. Channing, George B.
Emerson and Edward Everett in Massachusetts, Rev. Alonzo
Potter of Union College, and Gov. Dewitt Clinton of New
York, Francis Wayland, President of Brown University in
Rhode Island, Professors Olmstead and Russell in Connecti-
cut, and Rev. Calvin E. Stowe in Ohio, stood at the fore-
front of the cause. A great educational revival in behalf of
the proper education of American children in the American
public schools was on and these leaders and their associates
were the men raised up for the splendid work.
Rhode Island Aroused.
The Leaders : Henry Barnard.
Rhode Island began to awake to the situation, out of the
private school lethargy into which the people had fallen since
the grand efforts of President James Manning in 1790 and
of John Rowland in 1800. The Dorr War of 1842, and the
mental and political stir of the people prior to it, prepared the
people for the forward educational movement in this State,
under the leadership of Governor James Fenner, Dr. Wayland,
Hon. Wilkins Updike and Hon. Elisha R. Potter all men of
great power and Henry Barnard of Hartford, Conn., a
graduate of Yale College, who had espoused the cause of
common schools in his own State, was invited to act as Agent
for education in Rhode Island. Mr. Barnard entered on his
work late in 1842 and at the May session of the General As-
sembly, 1844, reported a bill for the establishment, support
and control of public schools, which became a law, June 27,
1845. Under it the office of Commissioner of Public Schools
was established and Mr. Barnard held the office, until his
resignation, from ill-health, in 1849.
In the Act of 1845, tne Commissioner was authorized "to
establish teachers' institutes, and one thoroughly organized
Normal School in the State, where teachers and such as
propose to teach, may become acquainted with the most
12 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
approved and successful methods of arranging the studies
and conducting the discipline and instruction of public
The pioneer work, wrought by Mr. Barnard, in behalf of
free common schools in our State cannot now be estimated in
amount or in value, and in and through it all he infused the
normal idea and ideals, without reaching any practical
results in Normal teaching. A belief in Normal School
education was planted by Mr. Barnard, but it was a plant of
slow growth, and it took a generation for its development in
Rhode Island. *
First Steps: Elisha R. Potter; S. S. Greene.
Hon. Elisha R. Potter, succeeded Mr. Barnard in the Com-
missionership, from 1849 to ^54- He advocated a Board of
Education and a State Normal School, but the free school
system was not on its feet in the State, and his work, like that
of Mr. Barnard was in preparing the way for the fulfillment
of their plans and hopes, and although a fiat school was
established in 1854, it never had popular support or confidence.
In 1850, a Normal Department was opened in Brown Uni-
versity, under the charge of Prof. Samuel S. Greene, then
Superintendent of Schools of Providence. His title was
"Professor of Didactics."
First Private Normal School.
In 1852, a private Normal School was established in Provi-
dence, under Prof. S. S. Greene, Dana P. Colburn, William
Russell and Arthur Sumner, as teachers. The Normal School
of Rhode Island had its beginning in the fall of 1852, following
an announcement that Prof. Samuel S. Greene, then Superin-
tendent of Schools in Providence, and Mr. Dana P. Colburn
* History of Public Education in Rhode Island, 1636-1876, by Thomas
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 13
of the Bridgewater, Mass., Normal School would give
instruction to young persons desiring to teach. The place
was a hall in the Universalist Church at the corner of
Weybosset and Eddy streets. The hall was furnished with
settees, and on the platform was a desk and a few chairs. In
the course of the session a few books accumulated on the desk,
a blackboard was placed on the wall, and possibly a few
maps, but of this I am not sure. About eighty young women
gathered here, mostly, I think, graduates of the Providence
High School, and three or four young men.
Besides Prof. Greene and Mr. Colburn, Mr. William Russell
and Mr. Arthur Sumner gave instruction. There were no
requirements for entrance, except the payment of a fee,
fifteen dollars, I believe, and no classification of pupils. The
hours were from nine to one o'clock with brief recesses. Each
instructor occupied an hour, the entire class being present all
the time. The subjects were arithmetic, algebra, grammar,
geopraphy, physical rather than political (Guyot being the
authority), reading and elocution. These were not narrowly
bounded, but were broadly conceived and sometimes inter-
mingled. Method was illustrated rather than defined, and
when pupils were required to give lessons, clearness and com-
pleteness were the requirements.
Prof. Greene was always analytical and logical. Every
lesson had definite outlines and well compacted content. He
did not confine his teaching to grammar or analysis of lan-
guage but occasionally touched upon some branch of science.
Mr. Colburn's teaching was essentially practical. The fact
was the important thing. That two and two made four was
an ultimate fact and needed no illustration with sticks or
beans. In a problem there was a definite end to be gained
and the method was such as common sense dictated. If a
14 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
subject could be made amusing as well as instructive he was
not afraid of compromising dignity by introducing mirth.
Mr. Russell was usually spoken of as an elocutionist, but
he was first of all an educated and refined gentleman. His
use of language was discriminating and choice, his manner
of speaking precise or even formal, his scholarship accurate;
he and Mr. Colburn were admirable complements to each
other in their influence.
Mr. Sumner* was younger than the others, of less, expe-
rience and teaching ability. But his tastes in literature and
his general culture enabled him to supplement the work of
others in two or three subjects.
There were no examinations at the close of the session, no
reports, no certificates or diplomas. A list of those who had
shown ability and aptitudes for teaching was made and many
on the list were afterwards employed in the schools of
Providence and elsewhere. f
First State Normal School in Providence.
In December, 1853, the School Committee of Providence
passed a resolution in favor of a Normal School, for the bene-
fit of City teachers, and of State teachers, if the State should
co-operate. The City Council approved the plan and made
provision for opening a Providence City Normal School.
Moved by the action of the City, the General Assembly, at
the May Session at Newport, 1854, passed a bill establishing
a State Normal School, appropriating $3000 for its support.
On the 29th of May, 1854, the first Rhode Island Normal
School was inaugurated in Providence, in the building of the
Second Universalist Society, Broad street, now Weybosset
street, with appropriate exercises, addresses being given by
Governor William Ward Hoppin and Commissioner Elisha
* A cousin of Hon. Charles Stunner. t Miss Ellen M. Haskell.
DANA P. COLBURN
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 15
R. Potter. Dana P. Colburn, of the Bridgewater Normal
school, was elected the first principal at a salary of $1,200 and
Arthur P. Sumner, of the Lancaster, Mass. Normal School,
assistant at a salary of $750. This school was continued in
Providence, under the charge of the Commissioner of Public
Schools, four years, with encouraging prospects of success,
but there were many influential persons in and out of the
General Assembly who complained of the expense of the
school, and were opposed to its support by the State, basing
their opposition to the school on the ground that the State
should not educate its teachers at public expense. So strong
was this sentiment that the General Assembly of 1857 re ~
fused its annual support of the Normal School.
Removal of Normal School to Bristol.
Hon. John Kingsbury, of Providence, the Commissioner of
Public Schools found it necessary to adopt other measures to
support the school, and, on consultation, it was decided to
remove the school from Providence to Bristol, in response to
an offer made by that town to provide school accommodations,
without expense to the State. Rev. Dr. Thomas Shepard,
minister of the Congregational Church of that town, was most
influential in the change, and the ancient Congregational
meeting house was reconstructed, so that the school might
have a home above the second floor, with a Town Hall below.
Dana P. Colburn. His Death.
The removal of the school to Bristol, in 1858, was, as its
enemies hoped and its friends feared, the beginning of the
end. The attendance at once decreased and interest
slackened. The sad and sudden death of Mr. Dana P. Colburn,
its able principal, Dec., 1859 (being thrown from his horse
while riding, and instantly killed), was a severe blow to the
school and a great loss to the State, for on his strong shoul-
16 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
ders, the school had been carried, since 1854. He was the
embodiment of the normal idea, and his enthusiasm for
teaching gave him promise of the highest rank in his profes-
sion. "The Normal School was his work-shop, whence
emanated his most positive influence on the world."
Joshua Kendall. Death of the School.
Joshua Kendall, succeeded Mr. Colburn, as principal, as-
sisted by Rev. Daniel Goodwin, Hanah W. Goodwin (now
Mrs. Dr. Drury), Ellen R. Luther, and other special teachers.
Mr. Kendall was a fine type of the gentleman, the scholar and
the teacher, but his abilities, supported by an able faculty,
could not stem the opposing influences working against the
school in its peninsular and isolated situation. In April,
1864, Mr. Kendall resigned the principalship to teach a private
school in Cambridge, Mass. The school continued its en-
feebled mission under the assistants, until July, 1865, when
its doors were closed at Bristol, and the first Rhode Island
Normal School ended its brief life of eleven years, with but
few mourners at its obsequies.
In 1866, an act passed the General Assembly to provide
instructions for teachers at academic schools, and, from that
date to the establishment of the present State Normal School,
in 1871, $2,500 was expended for the training of teachers at
the Providence Conference Seminary at East Greenwich and
at Lapham Institute at North Scituate. Those who desired
full normal training found it in the Normal Schools of neigh-
boring states. During the six years between the old and the
new school, the Commissioners, the Rhode Island Institute of
Instruction and some leading school officers continued a mild
discussion of the normal question, so that the normal idea was
kept alive in the house of its friends.
NORMAL SCHOOL HOME.
BRISTOL. R. I.
A New Era.
Thomas W. Bicknell, Commissioner of Public Schools, 1869.
In April, 1869, Seth Padelford, was elected Governor of
Rhode Island, holding the office by re-election four years. At
the May session of the General Assembly, in the exercise of
his prerogative, the Governor nominated Thomas W. Bicknell,
of Harrington, as Commissioner of Public Schools, which
was confirmed by the the Senate. Mr. Bicknell received
his commission and entered on the duties of his office, June
i, 1869, in a rear room on the second floor, at No. 19 West-
minster street, Providence.
The new Commissioner was then thirty-five years of age.
The district school of Barrington, Thetford Academy, Vt,
and Amherst College, and Brown University, had given him
his intellectual training, graduating from Brown in the class
Prior to graduation, he had taught three years and had a
taste of experience in legislation as a representative from his
native town in the General Assembly of Rhode Island, during
his senior year in college. His first speech in the Assembly
in the winter of 1859-60, was in favor of the abolition of the
separate schools for colored children. Of the nine years be-
tween graduation and the office of Commissioner, five were
spent as principal of the Bristol, R. I. high school, and four,
as principal of the Arnold street grammar school, Providence.
1 8 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
While at Bristol, he was in constant touch with the Normal
School and in frequent consultations with its teachers, there-
by becoming familiar with its work, and the ideals of its
faculty. As President of the Rhode Island Institute of In-
struction, 1866 to 1868, Mr. Bicknell secured the appointment
of an able committee to take steps for the re-establishment of
the Normal School, but its labors ended in consultations and
His Policy and Program.
Within thirty days of the receipt of his commission, Mr.
Bicknell declared his policy and made a program of the
work he proposed to do, which he communicated to school
officers, teachers and the people by circulars and the public
The program included:
First: Teachers' Institutes and lectures in the principal
towns of the State.
Second: School visitation and addresses to the people.
Third : The establishment of a State Board of Education.
Fourth: The establishment of a State Normal School.
Fifth: Conventions of school officers to discuss and
The first, second and fifth purposes of the program had
special reference to the third and fourth, as the immediate
and imperative needs of the hour. Before eight months had
elapsed, seven institutes for teachers and people had been
held at East Greenwich, Woonsocket, Wyoming, Wickford,
Little Compton, Newtown, Washington and Providence, with
an estimated attendance of over 500 teachers and 4000 parents
and friends, before all of whom the Normal School proposi-
tion was ably discussed, and at all of which the Commissioner
presided and directed the debate. In January, 1870, Roger
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 19
Williams Hall, the largest in Providence, could not contain
one-half the teachers and friends of education, who came to
hear the discussion of educational questions.*
A State Board of Education.
In order to secure a wise direction to the educational work
of the State, and permanency and greater efficiency in the Chief
Executive, the Commissioner submitted a -bill for the creation
of a Board of Education to consist of the Governor and Lieu-
tenant-Governor, ex-officiis and one member from each county,
except Providence, which from its greater size, should have
two; the Commissioner of Public Schools was to be the
Secretary of the Board and elected annually by it. It is but
justice to the Commissioner to state that he conferred with
every member of the General Assembly as to the merits of the
proposed measures which became a law at the January session,
1870, nine months to a day from the date of the commissioner's
entrance to office. The creation of a Board of Education was
the first important step in the founding of the second Normal
School. The first board consisted of Seth Padelford, of
Providence, Governor, Pardon W. Stevens, of Newport, Lieu-
tenant-Governor, Rev. Daniel Leach, Providence, Charles H.
Fisher, North Scituate, Prof. George Washington Greene,
East Greenwich, Samuel H. Cross, Westerly, Rev. A. F.
Spaulding, Warren, Frederic W. Tilton, Newport, and Thomas
W. Bicknell, Secretary of the Board.
A Normal School Campaign.
At the outset of the campaign for establishing a new Normal
School, the Commissioner had about a score of warm sup-
porters, among whom were Prof. S. S. Greene, Hon. John
* For a full account of this most remarkable meeting see the files
of the daily press and Rev. E. M. Stone's History of the R. I. In-
stitute of Instruction.
2O RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Kingsbury, Supt. Leach, Supt. Tilton, Prof. George W.
Greene, Gov. Padelford, Rev. Daniel Goodwin, Rev. Augustus
Woodbury, Hon. Elisha R. Potter, and later the Board of
Great obstacles opposed the movement. The general apathy
of the people was, perhaps, the most formidable. The normal
idea had never found popular favor. Dr. Woodbury, in his
address at the dedication of the State Normal School building,
in 1879, sa id of the early founding of the school, "There was
much prejudice to overcome, and much opposition to
encounter. The educational paper of the State, The Rhode
Island Schoolmaster/ was in a state of suspense, having fallen
by the wayside through apathy and inertion, in 1868. The
General Assembly was naturally indisposed to make a second
attempt, which might end in a second failure. Public opinion
does not rapidly crystallize in our State."
A large body of the wealthiest and most influential citizens
of the State was opposed to higher taxation for the support of
Common Schools, and a Normal School. These men con-
trolled the politics and the politicians of the State, and
threatened defeat of the measure.
The secondary and private schools were, as a rule, opposed
to a Normal School. The same opposition was shown by the
controlling forces of the Providence High School, and several
years elapsed before a graduate of the Normal School was
given preference to a position in the City schools over a
graduate of the girls' department of the City high school of
The members of the General Assembly, while most cordial
towards the Commissioner, were as a rule, non-committal or
hostile to the Normal School measure, at the outset. The
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 21
memory of the school, at Bristol, acted the part of a dreadful
nightmare : its ghost would not down at the order. It seemed
to the legislators, like an unburied corpse that needed decent
burial, not a resurrection.
"Failure " was written over the door of the first, and the
Commissioner was warned not to risk his reputation in at-
tempting to found another, lest a bigger "Failure," would
stand as its epitaph and his.
Another class of men did not believe that Rhode Island
could establish and support a first-class Normal School, and
urged the sending of Rhode Island candidates for teaching
to Massachusetts, Connecticut or New York, which could
afford educational luxuries.
What Hon. E. L. Freeman Thought.
The letters which follow are presented to confirm the
statements already made. They were written to Mr. Bick-
nell, in 1878, at the request of Dr. Woodbury.
Hon. E. L. Freeman, was Senator from Central Falls, for
many years, and one of the ablest politicians of the State.
Central Falls, R. I., Nov. 15, 1878.
Hon. T. W. Bicknell.
Dear Sir: In answer to your favor of the I4th inst., I
would say that the scenes in the Senate of Rhode Island, when
the bill re-establishing the State Normal School was passed,
are fresh in my remembrance. And while there were some
warm friends of the measure, yet the fact that the experiment
had been tried, and partially failed, was so potent with the
members that the bill would have failed had it not been for your
persistent labors not only with Committees, but with the
individual Senators. I confess that I voted for the measure
on account of your urgency, and with but very little faith that
22 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
the School would be a success. I believe that to you more
than any man or body of men is due the credit of the re-estab-
lishment of the Normal School.
r With respect I remain yours, etc.,
Edward L. Freeman.
Hon. Nathan T. Ferry, a Friend.
Hon. Nathan T. Verry, was a member of the House of
Representatives, from Woonsocket, and a member of the Com-
mittee on Education.
He wrote under date of Nov. 25, 1878, "I know from per-
sonal knowledge, the great amount of labor required to re-
instate and found a new Normal School. There was deep
prejudice and much opposition to be overcome, and to you
should be awarded the credit of meeting and answering these
objections. To you is the State indebted for the accomplish-
ment and success of this most important work, as founder of
the Normal School."
Hon. Samuel Powell, a Doubter Converted.
Hon. Samuel Powell, was the Senator from Newport, in
the General Assembly. He was a wealthy, educated gentle-
man of the old school, aristocratic and conservative, as
was the constituency he represented. He wrote as follows :
"While I was a member of the Rhode Island Senate I
distinctly remember the steady, earnest purpose you main-
tained in doing all you could to make favor for the re-establish-
ment of a Normal School in Rhode Island.
"I often discussed the question, whether, seeing the smallness
of our State, it were not wiser to claim the hospitality of the
Normal Schools of neighboring larger, and richer states, than
to endeavor to establish an independent school of our own.
I thought it questionable that we could reasonably provide as
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 23
broad a system of culture for the future tutelars of the
young. My own convictions of the aims and purpose of
education are somewhat peculiar, differing with the age in
which I live. Of course, the aggregate of education is largely
the assemblage of grains of knowledge, yet some of the walk-
ing accumulations of knowledge it has been my fate to meet,
have been among the most impracticable and most incapable
people in the community. They want a broad philosophy
and a sound judgment, with power practically to apply their
storehouse of wealth. These are some of the crotchets of
my brain, and I hold to them despite my sixty years, which
made it especially hard work for you to enlist my energy in
the support of a Normal School, in this small State. My
support, at last, under your urgent appeals, amounted to my
decided support, beyond all question, of the necessity of a
Normal School education, but I fairly stated for the judg-
ment of the Senate the questionings which oppressed my mind,
about going into the enterprise ourselves. These lines are for
your raconteur that he may have a notion of the trouble and
success you had in roping in the troublesome material you
had to deal with, and among that body I place myself."
How the People Were Won to the Normal Idea.
These letters are inserted here to show that the Normal idea
had never taken deep root in real Rhode Island soil. The first
school had never been the creation of the people, and had
never won position or popularity. It had need of the assent
and the consent of the citizenship of the State, in order to
enjoy popular support, and to secure that appreciative sup-
port was the task to which Mr. Bicknell devoted himself,
with all his ability, energy and enthusiasm.
24 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Rhode Island Institute, 1870.
The great meeting of the Institute at Roger Williams Hall,
January, 1870 the largest ever held in Rhode Island or in
any other New England state, at that date had a mighty in-
fluence in uniting the educational forces of the State in behalf
of a Normal School. A bright, new day seemed to have
dawned on the school work, and workers of Rhode Island.
The Commissioner led the way in urgent arguments, and was
heartily seconded by Gov. Padelford, Judge Potter, Hon.
C. C. Van Zandt, Hon. Henry Barnard, and others, and the
teachers went back to their schools inspired with new hopes
and purposes. Through the teachers, Mr. Bicknell hoped to
reach the people.
School Officers' Convention.
A convention of school officers was held in January, 1870,
over which Hon. Elisha R. Potter, presided the first meeting
of its kind ever held in the State. It was questioned in
advance, as to its success, but it proved an agreeable surprise
to the men of weak faith. The towns were well represented
by committees, superintendents and trustees. The chief
topics were the creation of a Board of Education, and a State
Normal School, on which the debate was earnest and intelli-
gent, and the final resolutions were practically unanimous in
favor of both propositions.
By these two great meetings, the Commissioner became well
assured of the cordial support of school officers and teachers.
The next move was to reach the legislators and the people
the principal work of the campaign.
The Providence press had supported the Commissioner
heartily and generously from the first. The Providence Jour-
nal, under the splendid editorship of George W. Danielson,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 25
and the Providence Press and Star, ably edited by Hon. Sidney
M. Dean, a Senator from Warren in the General Assembly,
opened their columns freely for the circulation of educational
news and discussion of matters of public school interest. The
Commissioner's office was a Bureau of Information, daily
visited by the reporters for school news, and the Commissioner
was often called upon to furnish matter for the editorial
columns of both papers.
Mass Meeting at Rocky Point.
Thus began the year, 1870 a memorable date in the educa-
tional history of Rhode Island. The Commissioner's program
was a full one. It included public addresses in every town of
the State, at which the Commissioner was assisted by one or
more speakers. Teachers' Institutes were held in several of
the larger towns and cities. A grand Mass Meeting of the peo-
ple of the State was held at Rocky Point, with a clambake as a
side attraction, in July, to which the citizens and teachers
flocked in great numbers from all parts of the State. Horace
Mann, once said, that if he wished to scatter a mob in
Massachusetts, he would commence a speech on education.
Education, Xonnal Education, was the rallying cry of this
unprecedented gathering, at the greatest watering place on the
bay. Men and women are now living, who state that their
first purpose to attend the Normal School, when established,
or to aid in its creation, was made at Rocky Point, in the year
1870. A splendid clambake, stirring addresses, and a band
of music, were fine bait to catch the populace, in behalf of a
State Normal School.
Commissioner Bicknell's Personal Work.
Personal work, hand-picking the farmers would call it,
was an important part of Mr. Bicknell's service, and it would
26 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
be an interesting story to tell how some legislators were won,
A Senator was to be visited in a town on the Connecticut
border, and the Commissioner walked two miles from the
R. R. station to find him hoeing corn with a gang of men.
Meeting him at the head of a row, the Commissioner took
a hoe of one of the men, and talked a new Normal School,
while he hoed his row by the side of the Senator. The
Senator promised his support. In another town, the leading
doctor was a leading politician, and held the control of the
two legislative votes. An address, in the doctor's school
district and a night as his guest secured the desired
result. In another town, where three women constituted the
school board, it was only necessary that he should assure
Judge O. and his associates, of his earnest support of a
school committee of women, to receive in return their loyal
friendship for his pet measure. He was royally entertained
as he boarded around, all over Rhode Island, and it was in the
tour of 1870, among the farmers and rural homes, that he
learned the Rhode Island housewives' art of housekeeping and
good cooking, as he never knew it before.
The Johnny-cakes of "Shepherd Tom's" Country, the
sausages and mince pie at Noose Neck, the roast turkey at
Westerly, the clams and fish of Little Compton, the Indian
pudding and baked beans at Burrillville, the stuffed bluefish
of Block Island, the succotash of Jamestown, are still,
"though lost to sight, to memory dear."
Rev. Dr. Woodbury's Opinion of the Work.
Rev. Dr. Woodbury, in his dedicatory address of the Second
Normal building, spoke as follows of Mr. Bicknell's work:
"He at once set himself to work to bring about the desired re-
sult. He left no stone unturned during the years 1869
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 27
1870, to inspire and combine the public sentiment in favor of
"By public educational lectures in every town in the state,
by teachers' institutes, and papers and discussions, thereon, by
the newspaper press, which opened its columns freely to the
commissioner, by the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction,
by the distribution of educational tracts, and by personal inter-
views with the members of the General Assembly, the labors
of the Commissioner gradually began to bear fruit. In these
two years of effort, a great deal of work had been done, and
that it was well done, the event has amply proved."
How Washington Saw It. Letter of Gen. John Eaton.
Gen. John Eaton, U. S. .Commissioner of Education wrote
to Dr. Woodbury as follows, concerning Mr. Bicknell's
"He seemed to us at Washington, to be the most efficient and
successful organizer and promoter for the Rhode Island
Normal School. As School Commissioner, he threw all his
magnetic personality, and great official influence in its behalf.
For this purpose he brought to bear the force of public
addresses, and the aid of the newspaper press, until the people
of the State became thoroughly converted to the Normal idea,
and he never ceased his urgency for its establishment, either
in season or out of season, publicly and privately, until he had
officially delivered the keys to James C. Greenough, its able
and efficient principal, in 1871. To Commissioner Bicknell
belongs the distinguished honor of founding the present State
Normal School of Rhode Island."
The Struggle; The Crisis; The Triumph.
The January session of the General Assembly, 1871, opened
with Seth Padelford, Governor, president of the Senate, and
Hon. Charles C. Van Zandt, of Newport, speaker of the House
of Representatives, both warm, personal friends of Commis-
sioner Bicknell, and of a State Normal School. Samuel H.
Cross, of Westerly, was chairman of the Committee on
Education in the Senate, and George Washington Greene, of
East Greenwich, chairman of the House Committee; both
were members of the Board of Education, were influential
with the members, and had endorsed the bill for a Normal
School, in a session of the board.
Normal School Bill in The Rhode Island Senate.
The bill was introduced in the Senate by Mr. Cross, and re-
ferred to his Committee on Education. In due time, the
Normal School bill was reported back to the Senate, with the
unanimous support of the committee, and was made the
special order of the day, for February 28, 1871.
At ii A. M., Commissioner Bicknell left his office for the
Senate chamber in the old State House on Benefit street, to
listen to the debate on the bill. Taking his seat in the lobby, he
waited the hour of debate. At n A. M., Governor Padelford
announced that the bill for a Normal School was the special
order of the day, and called on the secretary of state, Joshua
THOMAS W. BICKNELL,
COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 29
M. Addeman, to read the bill. After its reading, Sidney M.
Dean, Senator from Warren, arose and said: "Mr. President
and Senators, we have come to the hour for consideration and
action on one of the most important measures of the session; a
measure of vital interest to all the people of Rhode Island, in
that it has to do with the education of teachers, who are to
aid in the education of our children. There is a gentleman in
the Senate chamber, who is the leader in the movement for
a State Normal School, and who is familiar with the arguments
in its favor far beyond the members of this body. I refer
to Hon. Thomas W. Bicknell, our Commissioner of Public
Schools. I move, Mr. President, that the Honorable Commis-
sioner be invited to address the Senate on the bill now before
this body, and to that end, that the Senate now take a recess,
to reconvene after his address." Senator Dean's motion was
seconded and passed and the Senators, in the recess, kept
their seats, and Governor Padelford invited Mr. Bicknell to
address the Senate from the president's platform.
Commissioner Bicknell Before the Senate.
The Commissioner was surprised by this most unusual, un-
precedented and most unexpected turn of affairs, while the
high compliment overcame the surprise, and decision and
action were immediate.
Mr. Bicknell spoke over an hour, setting forth in the
strongest arguments at his command, the reason for establish-
ing a Normal School in Rhode Island. At the close of his
address, questions were asked by several Senators as to the
features of the bill, among which were the amount of the
appropriation, the location of the school, the number of
teachers, probable number of pupils, etc. Senator Powell,
of Newport, while questioning took occasion to state his
30 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
position, and his early objections to a Normal School in
Rhode Island, as intimated in the quotation from his letter.
It was one o'clock when Governor Padelford called the
Senate to resume its session, and without debate, Senator
Dean, of Warren, moved the passage of the bill, which was
seconded by several Senators, and on a viva voce vote, no
Senator voting against the bill, the Governor declared the bill
passed by a unanimous vote. At this point, Senator Nathan-
iel Peckham, of South Kingstown, stated that he wished to
make some remarks on the bill, and would like to have it laid
on the table until the next morning. In courtesy to the
Senator, the bill was so disposed of, and at the next session,
the Senator said he had decided not to speak upon the bill, and
on motion of Senator Dean it was passed by the Rhode Island
Senate, by an unanimous vote, March i, 1871.
The bill went to the House, was unanimously recommended
by the Committee on Education, and, after a brief debate,
passed the House of Representatives by a unanimous vote, no
one voting Nay, and became a law on March 15, 1871.
Debate in Rhode Island House of Representatives.
Special of Hon. George W . Greene.
Hon. George W. Greene, Chairman of Committee on Educa-
tion, in the House of Representatives, made an able speech on
the Normal School bill, which has been preserved in Vol.
XVII, of the Rhode Island Schoolmaster, pp. 129-134.
A few sentences from that speech are quoted. "I will state
in a single sentence the object of this bill. It is to protect
society against the wrong and the waste of incompetent teach-
ing. The State and the towns of the State have paid during the
last year large sums for the support of their schools: nearly
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 31
five hundred thousand dollars in all. Now, sir, I am speaking
within moderate bounds when I assert that one-third of those
five hundred thousand dollars have been thrown away nay,
worse than thrown away. I make the assertion thoughtfully,
and advisably. And how has this great, I had almost said
criminal waste arisen? Ask our laborious and thoroughly
informed School Commissioner. Ask the committee ap-
pointed by the Board of Education, to make a special study of
the wants and deficiencies of our school system. They will
make you the same reply. Ask frank and conscientious
teachers themselves. They will tell you that they have never
been taught to teach, and are learning as well as they can
at the expense of the minds and characters of their pupils, and
of the treasury of the State.
Sir, there is a great want in our school system. We
propose to supply that want, instead of the untrained, or half-
trained men and women, who take to teaching as a make-
shift, and as soon as they have found something that promises
better pay, renounce teaching. We propose to provide a
class of thoroughly-trained men and women, who shall feel
the dignity of their pursuit, and by honoring it themselves,
make others honor it; who shall love their profession, and
diffuse the quickening spirit of love through all its depart-
ments; who shall carry full minds and fresh hearts into the
school room, and thus take strong hold upon the minds and
hearts of their pupils; and who, at every improvement in the
processes of teaching, shall feel a new delight, like that which
the mathematician feels in the discovery of a new method of
solution, or the naturalist in the discovery of a new species."
32 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
Passed March 15, 1871.
SECTION i. There shall be established, as hereinafter pro-
vided, a school to be called the Rhode Island Normal School,
expressly for the education of teachers.
SEC. 2. Said school shall be under the management of the
State Board of Education, and the Commissioner of Public
Schools as a Board of Trustees, and they are authorized to
establish a State Normal School, at some suitable place in this
SEC. 3. All applicants from the several towns and cities
in the State shall be admitted to free tuition in said school after
having passed a satisfactory examination as prescribed by the
Board of Trustees, and after having given a satisfactory bond
to teach in this State, at least one year after graduation.
SEC. 4. Pupils who shall have passed the regular course
of studies at the State Normal School shall receive a diploma,
signed by the Trustees of the School, on the written recom-
mendation of the principal.
SEC. 5. The said Trustees shall, by themselves, or by a
committee of their own number examine applicants, and upon
finding due qualifications shall give certificates of their ability
to teach schools of the several designated grades in this State.
SEC. 6. His Excellency, the Governor, is hereby authorized
to draw his order on the general treasurer of this State, in
favor of the State Board of Education, for the sum of ten
thousand dollars, in such installments and at such times as
said Board may request, for the purpose of defraying the
expenses of said school for the first year; and the Board of
Education shall render an annual account of the manner in
which said moneys have been by them expended, at the January
session of the General Assembly.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 33
SEC. 7. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith
are hereby repealed.
AN ACT TO EQUALIZE THE BENEFITS OF THE
NORMAL SCHOOL, ETC.
[Passed March 24, 1871.]
SECTION, i. The Trustees of the Normal School may pay
to each pupil, who has been admitted to said school, and shall
have attended the regular sessions of said school, and in all
respects complied with the rules and regulations thereof, dur-
ing the term next preceding such payment, and whose resi-
dence during such attendance was in this State, at a distance
from said school of not less than five miles, a sum of money
not exceeding ten dollars a quarter, to aid in the payment of
the necessary traveling expenses actually incurred by such
pupil, for such attendance; provided that such payment shall
be made equally to all such pupils, and in proportion to the
distance of their residence, respectively from said school ; and
the aggregate amount of such payments shall not in any one
year exceed the sum of fifteen hundred dollars.
SEC. 2. AND 3, prescribe the form and limit the amount of
the payments for travel and Normal instruction.
There was general rejoicing in Rhode Island, over the
unanimous passage of the bill creating a State Normal School.
The newspaper press, which had advocated the measure,
uttered the first public congratulations. School officers and
teachers by letter, resolutions and personal addresses expressed
great joy over the result. The dawn of a new educational day
seemed near. At the Commissioner's office, the headquarters
of the Board of Education, there was a constant jubilee. Mr.
Bicknell, styled the General Assembly, 'The Educational
34 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Legislature" of Rhode Island, and said that its memory would
be kept ever green in the hearts of Rhode Island educators.
In the April issue of the Rhode Island Schoolmaster, 1871,
of which he was editor, he wrote these opening sentences:
"The friends of education in Rhode Island will rejoice with
us over the passage of the bill which re-establishes a Normal
School within our borders, and which gives to it, for its outfit,
the sum of ten thousand dollars. ....
"There only needed the strong expression of the popular will
in this matter, and that has at last been given, in the unanimous
votes of our legislators in favor of the immediate establish-
ment of a first-class State Normal School. To the honor of
the General Assembly, of Rhode Island, for the year of grace,
1870-71, not a man was found in either House, who was
willing to put his name on record as opposed to a State Normal
School, and training school, and the question of pecuniary
support was not how little, but how much money is needed
for its endowment to ensure its absolute success.
"As Rome was not built in a day, so our Normal School must
not be expected to do its work in a season, or to send out at
its first graduation to every school district in the State, the
teacher needed and best fitted for the place. Time and
patient labor are elements required to give it stability, character
and success. ....
"Rhode Island is now in line with all her sister New England
states. .... Teachers, school officers, pupils,
patrons, and citizens, give thanks, take courage and go
The Trustees and Their Work.
The act creating a State Normal School, made the State
Board of Education with the Commissioner of Public Schools,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 35
a Board of Trustees for its establishment and control. The
sum of ten thousand dollars was appropriated for its annual
support. Later, an act was passed, appropriating the sum of
$1,500, as mileage for all students living more than five miles
from the school.
The Board of Trustees entered at once upon the work of
organizing and establishing the Normal School. It was
decided that the school should be located in Providence, and
a suitable building was found in the High street Congregation-
al meeting house, from which the church had recently removed
to Broad street. Its owner, Hon. Amos C. Barstow, recon-
structed the edifice to suit the demands of the Trustees, on a
The Providence Journal, on March 16, 1871, the day follow-
ing the passage of the bill creating a State Normal School,
had a most cordial editorial on "The State Normal School,"
from which we quote, "The friends of common schools will
rejoice to see that the project of establishing a State Normal
School has been received with so much favor, and will watch
its further progress with profound interest. Its successful
finality must be regarded a signal triumph of the cause of
popular education in our State, and the assured precursor
of better teachers and better schools."
Finding a Principal.
The finding of Dr. Livingston by Stanley, was one of the
greatest events of his dramatic life. So the important labor
of finding an able principal for the Normal School, was a
matter of no small magnitude. On it the success or failure
of the new school would in a great measure hang. The
Trustees felt that a great responsibility rested on them, and that
great confidence was reposed in them by the strong support
of the people, as expressed by both branches of the General
On the I4th of April, the Board of Trustees appointed a
committee on securing a principal for the Normal School,
consisting of Gov. Padelford, Professor Greene, Supt. Leach,
Rev. G. L. Locke, Supt. Tilton, and Commissioner Bicknell.
This committee, with others of the board, visited the State
Normal Schools of New York, at Albany and Oswego, and the
Westfield and Bridgewater schools of Massachusetts, with
two objects in mind: one the study of the best type of school
for our State, the other to find a man representing the chosen
type for the principalship. In the final survey of normal
instruction in New England and the Middle States, it seemed
to the Trustees, that the Massachusetts methods and principles
would be of the greatest practical value in Rhode Island, and
Messrs. Dickinson, of Westfield, and A. G. Boyden, of
Bridgewater, were taken into their counsels, to the end that
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 37
the Board might obtain the best representatives of their normal
ideas. After much consultation and correspondence, atten-
tion was called, among many others, to James C. Greenough,
associate principal of the Massachusetts Normal School, at
Westfield. A careful study of the man, through all the
avenues of information at command, with a studious acquaint-
ance with Rhode Island needs, led the Trustees to the conclu-
sion that no mistake would be made in choosing him. The
decision WPS left with a sub-committee consisting of Gov.
Padelford and Mr. Bicknell, who were instructed to attend
the annual graduation exercises at Westfield, Mass., in June,
and if the class work satisfied the committee, of a high standard
of work, they should offer to Mr. Greenough, the principalship
of the Rhode Island school, with the privilege of naming his
assistants. Two days were spent at Westfield by the sub-
committee, and so thoroughly were they convinced as to
the fitness of the man, and value of the methods of that
school, that Mr. Greenough was offered the principalship of
the Normal School, and before they left Western Massachu-
setts, Mr. James C. Greenough, Miss Susan C. Bancroft, and
Miss Mary L. Jewett, all graduates of the Westfield school,
were engaged to teach in Rhode Island, their work to begin
September, 1871. Next to the establishment of the school
in legislation, was the act of securing these three persons, who
were to shape the future of the Normal School. The wisdom
of that day's work has never been questioned in Rhode Island,
and its results are destined to be far-reaching. The Board of
Trustees endorsed all. They builded well and wiser than
Mr. Greenough soon visited Providence, studied the situa-
tion, and in connection with a committee of the Board of
Trustees, prepared a course of study, secured special lecturers
38 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
and arranged other preliminary work, to the end that the
Trustees might issue a bulletin, relating to the dedication and
work of the school.
As this document has historic value, its contents are pub-
lished, entire. The 6th of September was chosen for the
opening of the school, in honor of the 37th birthday of the
Commissioner of Public Schools.
RHODE ISLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL,
AT PROVIDENCE, R. I.
BOARD OF INSTRUCTION.
J. C. GREENOUGH, A. B., PRINCIPAL.
Miss SUSAN C. BANCROFT AND Miss MARY L. JEWETT,
LECTURERS AND SPECIAL INSTRUCTORS.
PROF. GEORGE I. CHACE, LL.D. PROF. B. F. CLARKE,
Physiology and Moral Mathematics.
Science. PROF. T. WHITING BANCROFT,
PROF. S. S. GREENE, LL.D., Rhetoric.
Language and English PROF. CHARLES H. GATES,
Grammar. Modern Languages.
PROF. J. LEWIS DIMAN, LL.D. Miss SUSAN C. BANCROFT,
English History. Vocal Music and Vocal
HON. GEORGE W. GREENE, Culture.
American History. MRS. M. H. MILLER,
HON. THOMAS W. BICKNELL, Reading and Elocution.
SAMUEL S. GREENE.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 39
Able Instructors in Drawing and Penmanship will be secured.
His EXCELLENCY SETH PADELFORD, ex-officio.
His HONOR PARDON W. STEVENS, ex-officio.
REV. DANIEL LEACH, REV. GEORGE L. LOCKE,
GEORGE W. GREENE, SAMUEL H. CROSS,
CHARLES H. FISHER, M. D., FRED W. TILTON,
THOMAS W. BICKNELL,
Commissioner of Public Schools, and Secretary of the Board
OPENING OF SCHOOL.
This school will be opened on Wednesday, September 6th,
1871, at which time, appropriate dedicatory exercises will be
The object of the school is to enable those who are to teach
in the Public Schools of Rhode Island to prepare for their
work. The importance of professional training is now recog-
nized by all who appreciate the value of good teaching, and it
is hoped that those who intend to teach in our State, will, if
possible, avail themselves of the means of preparation now
provided by the bounty of the State.
Course of Study.
A two years' Course of Study, similar to that found in the
best Normal Schools in this country, will be adopted. It
is expected that the graduates of our High Schools will be able
to finish the course in one year, and those furnishing satisfac-
tory evidence of having honorably completed a course at a
High School, will be admitted, without an examination, to
an advanced standing in the school.
The Board of Education have prescribed the following
Course of Study for the State Normal School :
40 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Studies to be Pursued.
1. Arithmetic, oral and written, reviewed.
2. Geometry, begun.
4. Grammar, and Analysis of the English Language.
1. Arithmetic, completed; Algebra, begun.
2. Geometry, completed; Geography and History, begun.
3. Physiology and Hygiene.
4. Grammar and Analysis, completed.
5. Lessons once or twice a week in Botany and Zoology.
1. Algebra, completed; Book-keeping.
2. Geography and History, completed.
3. Natural Philosophy.
4. Rhetoric and English Literature.
5. Lessons once or twice a week in Mineralogy and
1 . Astronomy.
2. Mental and Moral Science, including the Principles and
Art of Reasoning.
3. Theory and Art of Teaching, including
(1) Principles and Methods of Instruction.
(2) School Organization and Government.
(3) School Laws of Rhode Island.
4. The Constitution of Rhode Island and the United States.
Drawing will be taught, with special reference to its use in
Common Schools and its practical application to industrial
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 41
Instruction will be given in the principles and practice of
Vocal Music, and the best methods of teaching the same.
General exercises will be given daily in Composition, Vocal
Culture, Object Lessons, and in Gymnastics.
Latin, Greek, French, German, and other advanced studies
may be pursued, but not to the neglect of the English course.
Those who shall honorably complete the course of study
will receive a diploma issued by authority of the State, and
signed by the Governor, the Commissioner of Public Schools,
and the Principal.
Qualification for Admission.
Male applicants for admission to the school must be 17
years of age; female applicants, 16. Candidates for admis-
sion will be examined in Reading, Spelling, Penmanship, Arith-
metic to Involution, Geography, Grammar, and after the year
1872, United States History; and for this purpose must pre-
sent themselves in the Study Hall of the Normal School
building, on the first day of the term, Wednesday, September
6, at 10 A. M.
Applications for admission should be made in person, or by
letter, as soon as possible, to the Commissioner of Public
Schools, Office, No. 87 Westminster street, Providence, R. I.
Candidates who apply by letter, should state the following
1. Name in full.
2. Post Office Address.
4. Place of previous education and the studies pursued.
5. If candidate has taught, state number of terms' experi-
ence as a teacher.
42 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Candidates should also furnish recommendations of good
intellectual ability and moral character from some responsible
Tuition will be free to all pupils who complete the course
of study with the intention of teaching in the Public Schools
of Rhode Island. Those who do not intend to teach, may
enter the school for a full or a partial course, at reasonable
rates of tuition.
Pecuniary Aid to Those in Attendance.
The mileage appropriation of fifteen hundred dollars will be
distributed among those pupils who reside at a distance ex-
ceeding five miles from Providence.
Pupils boarding in Providence will be entitled to the same
mileage as if they lived at home. The aid furnished to any
one pupil is limited to forty dollars per year. Special atten-
tion will be given to the applications of those in indigent cir-
cumstances who intend to complete the course of study in
order to teach in the Public Schools of the State, so that the
expenses of the education of such pupils may be made as light
Location of Normal School Building.
The Trustees have secured for the Normal School, the
edifice on High street, formerly used as the house of worship
of the High Street Congregational Church. This fine build-
ing, situated in a very eligible location, has been entirely re-
modeled in its internal structure, and will be carefully fitted
up so as to furnish an ample and beautiful study hall, recitation
rooms, and all necessary accommodations. Additional rooms
will be fitted up as occasion shall require.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 43
Railroad and Horse Car Communications With the School.
The trains over the several railroads which centre in Provi-
dence, will reach the city in season for the opening of the daily
sessions, and will leave soon after the close of the school in the
afternoon. The school building is within an easy walk of five
minutes of the Central Depot on Exchange Place; and the
Horse Cars of the several lines connecting with all parts of the
city, and with Olneyville, Elmwood, Pawtuxet, and South
Providence, either pass along High street, or within a moment's
walk of the school. All parts of the city and State are thus,
by railroads and horse cars, brought into direct and easy
communication with the Normal School.
Railroad officers have offered tickets at reduced rates to
those attending the school. These tickets may be obtained
by applying to the Principal.
Library, Apparatus, and Cabinet.
The Library of the school will be furnished with such works
of reference as may be needed, and the philosophical and
chemical departments with all necessary apparatus. The use
of a valuable cabinet of minerals has already been secured.
Terms, Vacations, and Sessions.
The school year will consist of forty weeks, divided into
two terms of twenty weeks each. The Fall and Winter Term
will begin Wednesday, September 6, 1871, and close Saturday,
January 27, 1872.
The Spring and Summer Term will begin Wednesday,
February 6, 1872, and close Saturday, June 28, 1872.
The Spring Term will be preceded by a vacation of one
week ; the Fall Term will hereafter be preceded by a vacation
of nine weeks.
44 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
There will be a recess of three days at Thanksgiving, and
of one week during the Christmas holiday. There will also
be a recess of one week in the middle of the Spring Term.
The school will hold its sessions on Tuesdays, Wednesdays,
Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays of each school week, from
9:30 A. M. till 2:30 P. M.
A session of the school will be held on Saturday, in order
that teachers and friends of education throughout the State
who desire to acquaint themselves with approved methods of
instruction may be present, and all interested in the work of
popular instruction are cordially invited to attend.
Board and Rooms.
For students who wish to reside in the city, board and rooms
in good families may be obtained at prices varying from $3.50
to $5.50 per week. Rooms may be obtained by those who
wish to board themselves, at very reasonable rates.
School officers in the several towns are requested to act as
a Committee, to recommend students of good capacity, from
their towns, for the benefits of the Normal course of study.
Address, for particulars and other information, previous to
the opening of the school, the Commissioner of Public Schools ;
after September 6, 1871, the Principal of the School.
By Order of the Trustees.
THOMAS W. BICKNELL,
Secretary of Trustees, and Commissioner of Public Schools.
Office, 87 Westminster street.
PROVIDENCE, July 30, 1871.
The following account of the dedicatory exercises appeared
in the Providence Journal, Sept. 7, 1871, and is preserved in
full for historic uses.
Opening Exercises and Dedication.
The opening exercises of the State Normal School took
place Wednesday morning, commencing at 10 o'clock, in
"Normal Hall." The hall was crowded, applicants for
scholarship, of which there were about one hundred and fifty
present, being arranged in the centre, and the friends of the
institution given seats on the sides and at the rear of the hall.
Upon the platform were seated His Excellency Gov. Padelford,
who presided over the exercises; Messrs. T. W. Bicknell,
Commissioner of Public Schools; Samuel H. Cross, of
Westerly; Dr. Fisher, of North Scituate; Daniel Leach, Sup-
erintendent of Public Schools of Providence; Rev. G. L.
Locke, of Bristol (all Normal School Trustees) ; His Honor
Mayor Doyle, Prof. J. L. Diman, Rev. E. M. Stone, J. C.
Greenough, Principal of the Normal School; Hon. Amos C.
Barstow, and various other friends of education in this State.
The exercises were opened with music by an improvised
quartette, Mr. Robert Bonner presiding at the piano. Rev.
E. M. Stone read a selection of Scripture, and Rev. Prof. J. L.
Diman, of Brown University, offered prayer.
46 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Gov. Padelford's Address.
His Excellency Governor Padelford, then made a brief
address as follows :
Ladies and Gentlemen It affords me great pleasure to meet
so large a number on this occasion, so important to the rising
generation of Rhode Island. It is one in which the educators
and the educated should alike feel proud, for it is by means of
the Normal School that the numbers of both are to be in-
creased, the educators or instructors made more efficient, and
the benign influences of a higher culture felt throughout the
State. We were among the first, in Rhode Island, in our
efforts to furnish to all, the means of an education. Our
system of public instruction has been efficient through the
common schools and the high schools ; and recently, by the
means of the fund obtained by the sale of lands granted by the
general government, we are enabled to maintain thirty students
at Brown University free of charge, whenever that number
shall be appointed by the Commissioners. But there was one
link wanting to make our system complete, and this was a
Normal School for the education of the teachers. As soon
as the General Assembly became aware of the want of a
Normal School in this State, with a view of raising the
standard of education, it passed an act for its establishment,
and made a liberal appropriation for its support. It also
created a Board of Education, selecting therefor, gentlemen
interested in the cause of learning, who were willing to give
their time to the general oversight of an educational establish-
ment, that it might be placed on an equal footing with those
of other States in the Union. I consider this Board a most
important appendage to an institution of this kind as well as
to the cause of Education throughout the State, and one that
has long been needed. Normal or training schools were first
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 47
introduced in Prussia about the middle of the last century,
where they made little headway. Some fifty or sixty years
since they began to be adopted in other countries, and soon
spread and multiplied all over Europe. In the United States,
the first one was opened in Massachusetts, thirty-nine years
ago, and attended with the most complete success, and they
now exist in most of the northern and western states as well
as in some of the southern states, in the Canadas and Nova
Scotia. But it is not alone in Europe and in the United
States that Normal Schools have been attended with such
good results, for their fame has extended to the Far East. In
India and Turkey they have been established, and quite
recently in at least two of the South American States. It
is quite time, therefore, that Rhode Island should be waking
up to her interests. The State has made a liberal grant of
money, and the Board of Education has made choice of an
experienced and accomplished teacher in a gentleman who
comes to us from one of the first Normal Schools established
in America Westfield, Mass. with two able and accom-
plished female assistants. Their experience will, therefore,
be of great service to us in our new enterprise.
I hope they will find their new field of labor one that will
be agreeable and pleasant to them, fully meeting all their ex-
pectations. I beg leave to extend to them a warm and cordial
welcome, pledging to them all the aid and support within my
power to give as the Executive of the State, with the fullest
assurance that it will prove a perfect success, reflecting credit
alike on themselves and upon the State. We owe much, in
the fresh impulse given to the cause of education and in the
establishment of this Normal School, to our present indefati-
gable and zealous School Commissioner, who has 'been
unwearied in his efforts to give to this undertaking a marked
48 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
success in its opening. With such aid and such experienced
and zealous advocates, I feel assured that Rhode Island will
be able to maintain a position second to none in the country.
Mayor Thomas A. Doyle.
His Honor the Mayor made a brief address, cordially wel-
coming to the city the teachers who come here from abroad,
and congratulating the friends of education and the people of
Rhode Island on the successful establishment of the institution.
Address of Rev. Daniel Leach, Superintendent of
Schools, Providence, R. I.
Mr. President : The present is an occasion of deep interest
to every true friend of education. We are here to-day to
inaugurate the re-establishment of a Normal and training
school for our State. Well may we rejoice at the opening of
an institution so full of promise and hope. We may now,
with confidence, look forward to the glorious fruits of a ripen-
ing harvest. The great and fundamental truth cannot be too
often reiterated or too emphatically expressed, that it is
through intellectual and moral power alone that any people
can be permanently exalted. This institution, which has such
flattering prospects at its opening, is designed to elevate and
dignify the office of a teacher. However this may have been
degraded in times past by unworthy aspirants, it is an office,
when worthily rilled, that cannot be surpassed in true honor and
dignity by any other in the gift of man, and woe to the people
that neglect or undervalue it.
The principal aim of this school is not to take the place of
other seminaries of learning, either of a higher or lower grade,
but it is to be emphatically professional, to teach the art of
teaching the noblest of all arts. It is not designed to furnish
teachers with the elements and materials of knowledge, but
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 49
to give greater clearness and accuracy to their thoughts to
enable them so to arrange and beautify what they have already
acquired, that it may be the more skillfully imparted to others.
This is its legitimate work, and to this should its labors be
confined. Another aim, not less important, is to unfold to the
teacher the true motive power by which his work is to be ac-
complished. It is this knowledge, more than any other, that
distinguishes the true, noble teacher.
Education is not merely a process of pouring into the
memory and storing up valued truths, but rather the develop-
ing and invigorating the nascent energies of the youthful
mind. It is the opening of the secret avenues of the soul to
the pure rays of intellectual and moral light it is in emphati-
cally teaching how to think to think clearly, connectedly and
forcibly. How significant and full of meaning is the old
Saxon word "to think," and yet how little understood. By
the faculty of thinking we are allied to angels, and what is
there in the wide realm of creation that can be compared with
original, beautiful thought.
It is evident that a work so vast, so difficult, so far-reaching
in its results, requires careful training and the most consum-
mate skill. And while teachers should be made to understand
and feel that it is their first and highest duty to make the paths
of learning attractive and delightful, and from the rich stores
of their varied knowledge to throw around them every possible
charm, and to present every laudable incentive, they should
also be deeply impressed with a truth no less vital and import-
ant, that under the Providence of God, everything great and
good has its price, and that there is no valued acquisition
within the reach of money that is not the reward of active,
persevering labor, and that without this, but little, very little,
can ever be accomplished.
5O RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
I rejoice, Mr. President, that the cause of popular educa-
tion in our State has this day received an impulse that will
carry it forward to a glorious future. Already I see the
dawning of a new era of intelligence and virtue. Already
do I hear the gladsome voices of youth rejoicing in the ways of
knowledge. Already do I see science and art, with increasing
power and skill, creating their beautiful productions through-
out this fair land.
And now, Mr. President and Board of Trustees, I would
congratulate you, and our laborious Commissioner, that your
assiduous efforts to establish this school have been, to-day,
crowned with such brilliant success.
Address of Hon. Amos C. Bar stow.
Hon. Amos C. Barstow was introduced by the President as
the man who had provided the building for the use of the
Normal School, and made a few remarks, alluding to the fact
that this was the second time he had been present at dedicatory
services in this building the first being its dedication as a
sanctuary, in 1844. This was, he said, the Divine order first
the sanctuary and then the schoolhouse ; first religion and then
education. He then gave a short history of the causes which
led to the use of this building for the purposes of a Normal
School, and closed with congratulations to the friends of
education on the brilliant prospects of the institution.
Address of Thomas IV. Bicknell
On Presentation of Keys to Mr. Greenough.
Hon. T. W. Bicknell, Secretary of the Board of Trustees,
presented the keys to the Principal, Mr. J. C. Greenough,
with the following remarks:
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Trustees:
A simple, but significant duty has been assigned me, to
deliver the keys of this edifice, now styled the Rhode Island
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 51
Normal School building, into the custody of the Principal of
the Normal School, about to be opened within its walls. Its
simplicity requires no words, but its interesting significance
compels a brief utterance, First, of ardent congratulations,
that you and I live to see this auspicious day, when Little
Rhody, first in many of the great interests which benefit
humanity and the world, shall assume an equal rank with her
sister States in the character and extent of her educational
institutions. Our common schools and our college have laid
the foundation of our social and intellectual strength and of
our physical prosperity, and in their present rank and success
we may feel a just pride. But added to these, as a guide and
stimulus to better things in the future, our legislators, our
educators, our teachers and our people have long felt the need
of such an institution as you have aided in re-establishing.
Your wisdom in this event is but the interpretation of the
people's want; your prescience, but the reading of the hand-
writing upon the walls of our educational and political fabric.
This crowded assemblage of the youth of our State, so far
outnumbering your largest anticipations, anxious to pluck the
fruits of a larger culture, and a finer training, to bear them
to the children of our State, literally rather than figuratively
hungering after knowledge, is only the expression of the
popular mind and heart on this subject of education. You
have been obedient to the earthly vision, and these doors which
swing their portals outward to-day, turn in cheerful harmony
with that law which has its centre in the souls of freemen, and
in obedience to which kings and courts, governors and councils
move. These halls, so appropriately constructed and
furnished, these walls so fittingly adorned for labor, and
to-day by these simple services dedicated to the uses of Normal
training, are of little account in the work we do, and history
52 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
will take little note of them. This able faculty, and all the
appliances you may render them, are but human instrumen-
talities, and not for them have you wrought thus far. The
State to-day, following the Master's example, holds before us
its little children, and bids its agents heed their wants, their
great necessities. You hear the cry which calls for bread, and
from the home, the humble district schoolhouse, the high
school, and college walls conies the same voice, "Give lest we
These youth, invoked by that earnest cry, ask you to furnish
them for the high mission work to serve and save the State;
and in the interests of our teeming population, whose children
bless our towns, villages and cities, we are inspired and act.
Acting in their name and yours, gentlemen of the Trustees
for the State we love to serve, it is my pleasure, Mr. Principal,
to present you the keys of this building. They are the symbols
of power and trust. Bringing with you from the great centre
of Normal labor in a noble sister State, the rich experience and
ripe culture of years of studious work, we have the largest con-
fidence that you will build as wisely and successfully here as
there. The people of Rhode Island look this way, at this
hour, not through curtained windows, but with clear vision and
throbbing hearts. Their faith is in God and common schools.
That was the fathers' creed, and, thank heaven, it shall be the
children's. "Hope" is our motto, and we are anchored to it.
They will soon learn what manner of \vorkmen you and your
co-laborers are, and in their friendship and prayers you and
your work here shall stand.
You know full well the value of the sacred trust this day
imposed and assumed. Human hands, hearts and wisdom
fail, but the Divine, never. To you and your able associates
we delegate the power to guide and mould the teaching talent
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 53
of our Commonwealth. Supported you shall be, by the gener-
ous patronage this day assured, and by the grand army of our
teachers, who welcome you as new workers and leaders at the
head of their laborious columns. New courage has inspired
them as step by step of this great enterprise has been taken,
and the cap-stone of our labors goes to its place with universal
For the Trustees, the appointed guardians of this noble
undertaking, for the school officers of the State, whose gener-
ous services give tone and character to our educational work,
for the people of Rhode Island, whom I humbly, but lovingly
serve, I welcome you and your associates, and entrust you with
the high commission as the teacher of teachers. The keys
I now place in your hands have a mystic power. By them
enter not only this building to your daily duties, but the
homes and schools all over our State. Your influence and
labors, through these students your representatives shall
extend beyond the here and now, into the future history
of every hamlet and household within our borders.
May Heaven shed daily richest blessings upon the officers,
the teachers and the pupils, present and future, of the Rhode
Island Normal School.
Address of James C. Greenough, Principal, in
Accepting the Keys.
Mr. Greenough, in accepting the keys, responded as follows :
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Board of Education and
Trustees of the State Normal School:
In receiving these keys from you, at the hand of your
Secretary, the Commissioner of Public Schools, I accept for
myself and for my associate teachers, a trust second in
importance to no other which you can impose.
54 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The object of this school, to-day opened, is to fit for their
work those who are to teach in the public schools of Rhode
Island. So far as this object shall be gained, better methods
of education will prevail, the ranks of skillful, earnest and
enthusiastic teachers will be reinforced, and through the better
education of those who gather in our public schools, the best
interests of the people of this State will be advanced. No
board of instructors, however varied or complete their talents,
acquisitions and experience, can wisely claim that they are
fully adequate to the great work of forming the teachers of
our public schools; but in behalf of those whom you have
called to this work, I pledge our best efforts. Whatever of
knowledge or wisdom we have garnered in the past, or can
gain in the future, we will devote to the accomplishment of
the object for which this school is established.
We feel encouraged and strengthened by the interest
which the people of Rhode Island have hitherto shown in the
work of public instruction, and which is to-day manifested by
this gathering of youth awaiting admission, by this concourse
of patrons and friends, and by this beautiful study-hall and
other rooms so conveniently fitted for our use.
We are encouraged by the cheering words that you, acting
for the State, and you, Sir, acting for this goodly City, have
spoken. We are strengthened by the assurance that we
shall receive the sympathy and the cordial co-operation of
fellow-teachers, and of the friends of education throughout
But there remains a higher source of encouragement and
strength. He who has guided you hitherto in this enterprise,
we believe, is ready to add his blessing to every honest effort
to further those high ends for which this school has been
MRS. LEONARD TILLING HAST.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 55
founded, and trusting to His aid, I accept these keys, and
shall endeavor to discharge faithfully the duties which are
The following dedicatory hymn, written for the occasion was
sung by the whole assembly :
In every rude, unquarried stone,
Full many a beauteous image lies;
And 'tis the sculptor's skill alone
Unveils it to our wondering eyes.
His eye discerns its latent form,
His curious chisel carves each line;
With skillful touch and purpose warm,
He slowly moulds the grand design.
In ev'ry rude uncultured mind,
The powers of thought, immortal, lie;
The patient teacher there may find
Fit image for eternity.
His touch may rouse the slumb'ring powers,
His word may bid the image rise ;
Til, beautiful in strength, it towers,
To bless the earth, and reach the skies.
To-day, our State, whose boundary falls
Where once the exiled pilgrims trod,
Here dedicates these temple walls
To truth and learning, and to God.
56 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Our watchword "Hope'' with ardor new,
We'll strive to train the heart and hand
Of teachers earnest, faithful, true,
Who shall go forth to bless our land.
The benediction was pronounced by Rev. Mr. Horton, of
Barrington, and the exercises were over.
A short time was spent by the assembly in viewing the
various rooms of the school building, which seem to be ample
and admirably fitted for their new purpose, after which the
applicants for admission to the school gathered again in
Normal Hall for examination. There were nearly two hund-
red applicants for this honor, some of whom have been turned
to other educational institutions by the fact that there were
accommodations here for but one hundred, so only about one
hundred and fifty made their appearance this morning, mostly
females. Those having High School diplomas were admitted
without examination. The remainder were examined in
accordance with the circular issued by the Board of Trustees,
and, as the number must be greatly lessened, the grade of
admission will probably be higher than were the number more
proportionate to the accommodations. That so large a
number of Rhode Island's school boys and girls are anxious
to secure a training which shall fit them for first-class teachers,
is the best commentary we have known on the wisdom of
establishing the school. It is expected that the selection will
be made by Friday morning, when teachers and scholars will
commence their duties proper, and then the Rhode Island
State Normal and Training School, so long talked of and
hoped for, will be in the full tide of operation. May its
success equal the wishes and expectations of its most sanguine
Letters and Documents Relative
to the Founding of The Rhode
Island Normal School.
The following letters and documents relate to the opinions
of persons familiar with Mr. Bicknell's work in the founding
of the present Normal School, and its subsequent growth.
They were secured at the request of Rev. Dr. Woodbury, to
use in connection with the dedication of the Second Normal
George W . Greene, the Historian.
Prof. George W. Greene, was the life-long friend of the
poet, Henry W. Longfellow. He was visiting Mr. Long-
fellow at his historic Cambridge home, when this letter was
written. The letter is in the handwriting of the poet, and
signed by Prof. Greene, with a tremulous hand.
Prof. Greene, as he states, was chairman of the Committee
on Education, in the Rhode Island House of Representatives,
and steered the Normal School bill to its enactment as a law
of the State.
Cambridge, Nov. 22, 1878.
Dear Mr. Bicknell :
I should have called upon you to-day, but the storm has
prevented ; and, as I am going home on Monday or Tuesday.
I fear I shall not have the pleasure of seeing you.
58 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The nature and extent of your services in founding the
Normal School of Rhode Island cannot be overstated, and
may be told in a single sentence. But for you the work
would never have been done; at least, not for many years.
There were formidable prejudices to be overcome, and
conflicting opinions to be reconciled. As Chairman on the
Committee of Education, I had every opportunity of observ-
ing the zeal, energy and good judgment, with which you
carried on and completed your work. Rhode Island owes
you a debt of gratitude, and your name will always be associat-
ed with one of her most important institutions.
I am, Dear Mr. Bicknell,
Yours very sincerely,
George W. Greene.
Dr. Charles H. Fisher,
Member of State Board of Education.
I well remember how indefatigably you worked toward the
establishment of a Board of Education, and a State Normal
School. Many public meetings and institutes were held,
and much personal work was done among the members of
the General Assembly. I remember visits made to Normal
Schools in Massachusetts, and New York, and your extreme
satisfaction and jubilant expression upon the successful
founding and work of the school. I think you called the
establishment of the school the crowning glory of your
ambition in School work in Rhode Island, as it certainly was.
These were most important events in our educational history
of which you might truthfully say, "Magna pars fui."
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 59
Dr. William A. Mowry,
Principal English and Classical School, Providence, R. I.
While I was not familiar with the details of the State work,
I knew that Mr. Bicknell was the efficient Commissioner of
Public Schools, that he secured the legislation establishing the
Board of Education and that he re-established the Rhode
Island Normal School, a most difficult undertaking.
Thomas Wentivorth Higginson,
State School Historian.
Dr. Chapin was succeeded in June, 1869, by Thomas XV.
Bicknell, as Commissioner, in whose reports we begin at once
to see that greater thoroughness and method, which we are
now accustomed to expect in such documents. For the first
time, in connection with his first report, every town in the
State published its school report in full. The various points
of school discipline, absenteeism, truancy, normal instruction,
and school supervision were not only discussed in the main
document, but illustrated from the local experience of differ-
ent towns. Mr. Bicknell at once urged the creation of a
State Board of Education, and the re-establishment of the
Normal School. Both these measures were almost immediate-
ly carried: the former in 1870, and the latter, in 1871. From
this time forth, the annual reports of the Board of Education
have accompanied those of the School Commissioner.
By his annual reports and personal efforts, Mr. Bicknell
also did much, as to procuring liberal legislation on public
libraries, as to the extension of the term of school committees
from one to three years, and as to the legal authorization of a
school superintendent for every town.
60 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
As Providence was the first city in New England to appoint
(in 1838) a city superintendent, it was appropriate that the
State should also be prominent in wise legislation on this point.
Mr. Bicknell also urged the appointment on school committees
of a reasonable proportion of experienced women, mentioning
one town in the State where the committee had even consisted
of women only, with favorable results. He collected valuable
data as to evening schools from different towns in the State.
He fearlessly presented the facts as to illiteracy in Rhode
Founding of the State Normal School by Thomas B.
Stockivell, Commissioner of Public Schools.
In 1869, Thomas W. Bicknell was appointed Commissioner,
and the six years of his administration were marked by a
remarkable degree of activity in all educational affairs.
Almost immediately an act was passed creating a State Board
of Education, which was clothed with general supervisory
power and designated to unify more fully all the educational
forces of the State. There had been an attempt in Judge
Potter's time to establish such a body, but it failed, and
though often talked of, it did not materialize until Mr.
Bicknell took it up in 1869. The next year witnessed the
re-establishment of the State Normal School ; teachers'
institutes for the specific instruction of teachers in methods of
teaching, were held in large numbers, each year, in all parts of
Life and energy were apparent on all sides, and the system
struck its roots deeper and deeper into the affectations and
* Report, January, 1872, pp. 34 to 69; January, 1874, p. 90.
THOMAS B. STOCKWELL.
COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 61
convictions of the people. Appropriations commenced to
grow, better school houses began to appear, teachers' wages
were increased, and a decided advance was made in all
For six years the State had been without any special
facilities for the training of teachers, but at the January
session, 1871, as one of the results of the labor of Commis-
sioner Bicknell, a bill was passed organizing a Normal School,
and liberal appropriations were made for its support. The
school was opened, Sept. 6, 1871, in Providence, in what had
been the High Street Congregational Meeting house, with
James C. Greenough, of Westfield, Mass., as principal. The
school at once commanded the attention and confidence of
the community, and students came to it in large numbers. It
was not long before it became evident that larger and more
complete quarters must be secured.*
* From Cyclopedia of The New England States, Article on
Education in Rhode Island, Vol. IV, pp. 23, 98 et seq., by Thomas
B. Stockwell, Commissioner of Public Schools.
The Three Homes of the Normal
The first home of the State Normal School has been
located, and described. The size of the student body at the
outset, and the rapid growth of the school far surpassed the
most sanguine anticipations of its friends, and not many
months elapsed before it was evident to the teachers, and
Trustees, that the accommodations at High street (now West-
minster), were too narrow for the greater usefulness, and
success of the school. The great benefits derived from the
school in all parts of the State had made its success and
necessity no longer doubtful, and it was decided, by the
Trustees, as early as 1873, to take active measures for its
recognition, as one of the permanent institutions of the State,
by securing for it the location, and conveniences co-extensive
with its needs and advantages.
On the 28th of January, 1875, less than a month after Mr.
Bicknell had resigned the office of Commissioner of Public
Schools, a joint special committee of the General Assembly
was appointed to ascertain and report at what price a suitable
location for the State Normal School could be obtained. The
estate of the Providence High School, on Benefit street, was
favorably considered, and on recommendation of the com-
mittee, the General Assembly empowered the committee to
purchase it, at a cost not exceeding $40,000, this sum to
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 63
cover all expenses in refitting the premises. On July I, 1878,
the property was transferred to the State for $30,000, the
reconstruction was at once entered on, and on the 23rd day
of January, 1879, the new building was dedicated, with appro-
priate exercises.* The State Normal School had in seven
years proved to the people its great value as an educator of
teachers, and as a consequence found itself provided with a
fit and permanent home.
Rev. Augustus Woodbury, of Providence, gave an historical
address, in which he reviewed the history of the growth of
the Normal idea in this State. At that date, the school under
Mr. Greenough, had enrolled five hundred and eighty students,
two hundred and one of whom had been graduates with
Gov. Charles C. Van Zandt, President of the Trustees, de-
clared that the Normal School had ceased to be an experiment,
and had become a permanent institution of the State. Com-
missioner Stockwell, in delivering the keys to Principal
Greenough, said that the Normal School was permanently a
centre of influences, which radiate in every direction. Mr.
Greenough, in receiving the keys, said that no one could per-
form the service of principal, as perfectly as its importance
demands, but promised to the best of his ability, to discharge
the duties imposed, that the school should appropriately sub-
serve the highest interests of the State.
To those who wish a more detailed statement of the growth
and work of the school during this period, or of its
whole career, the annual reports of the Board of Trustees,
the principals, and the Commissioner of Public Schools, from
* Dedication of the State Normal School Building, Providence, R.
I., 1879. Printed by order of the General Assembly.
64 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
1871, are referred to, obtainable at the Education offices, at the
Growth, enlargement, progress, characterized the Normal
School in its second home, as in the first. Even Mr.
Greenough's departure from the principalship in 1883,
though a great loss to the school and the work of education
in the State, did not permanently affect the onward and
upward movement. A normal momentum had been
established, which has increased with accelerating speed, in
harmony with the general progress of society in the State,
the nation, and the world.
The Board of Trustees in the report of January, 1892, urged
new accommodations. They said, ''It is absolutely impossible
to increase the size of the school while it stays in its present
quarters. We have already stretched its capacity until we
have been obliged to refuse admission for absolute lack of
room." "The greatest need urged was room for a series
of practice schools, covering all grades below the high school.
This feature of normal work was urged at the outset of the
school, but it was laid aside for want of room, and
the unwillingness of the Providence authorities to assist. The
Trustees urged the appointment of a joint committee of the
General Assembly to investigate and report on the facts at
the January session of 1892. On May 24, 1893, a commission
was created by the General Assembly, and authorized to
select and purchase a site and erect thereon a building for the
State Normal School." The members of this commission
were the trustees of the Normal School, and was made up of
the following gentlemen, up to the completion of the building
in 1898: Governors D. Russell Brown, Charles Warren Lippitt
and Elisha Dyer, Lieut-Governors Melville Bull, Edwin R.
Allen, and Aram J. Pothier and Messrs. Dwight R. Adams,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 65
Samuel H. Cross, John E. Kendrick, J. Howard Manchester,
Percy D. Smith, Frank E. Thompson, Thomas B. Stockwell,
S. W. K. Allen, George I. Baker, Rev. C. J. White, Frank
Hill, only two serving for the whole period, Messrs. Kendrick
and Stockwell. The commission chose as a building com-
mittee, Messrs. Kendrick, Cross and Smith. The land of
the present site was obtained by purchase or condemnation
in 1894, and Messrs. Martin and Hall, of Providence,
architects, presented completed plans for the Normal School
building, which were accepted. The construction of the
building was awarded to N. B. Horton & Son, of Providence,
and work was begun May 14, 1895. The grounds were
laid out by Mr. Frank M. Blaisdell, landscape architect, of
Boston, Mass. The cost of land and grading was $181,696.84.
The cost of building, furnishings, etc., was $359,043.00 ; Total
The new State Normal School building was dedicated
with appropriate services, Sept. 7, 1898, at which the valuable
property was turned over to the State by Mr. John E. Kendrick,
chairman of the building committee. Governor Dyer accepted
the keys in behalf of the State and in turn passed them to
to Mr. Stockwell, the Commissioner of Public Schools,
who gave a brief historical address on the Rhode Island
Normal School. The dedicatory address was made by Hon.
William A. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education. In
opening, he said, "If the nation could speak through my
voice to-day, I am sure it would utter its congratulations to
the people of Rhode Island, on the completion of this, the
most finished piece of Normal School architecture in the
* .Report of the Commission, etc., May session, General Assembly,
66 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
land." "Happy and proud State, where the accumulation of
wealth and the increase of the productive power that creates
wealth have surpassed the standard of all the other common-
wealths of this great republic."
It is just to say that the present home of the Rhode Island
Normal School is a fit residence for the noble work, and
workers for which it stands. No grander or more apprecia-
tive monument could be erected to honor the ideals of the
founders. The Normal School commission, not only honored
itself in the choice of location, and in the art, architecture and
appointments of the building, but in the conscious recognition
of the great end in view, the education of the people through
the common school. They seem to have wrought under the
"Great Taskmaster's eye." The tout ensemble is a splendid
tribute to Henry Barnard, the first apostle of normal
teaching in Rhode Island, to Samuel S. Greene, the first normal
teacher, to Elisha R. Potter, the father of the first State
Normal School, 1854-1865, and later for him who wrought
his heart and life into the foundations of the great institution
this beautiful edifice houses. It is enough to say, that the
reward of all good work for man or for the State lies in
Tennyson's, "Far off divine event toward which the whole
* Rhode Island School Report, 1898.
ARTHUR W. BROWN,
FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
CHAIRMAN OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Fortieth Anniversary of the Found-
ing of The Rhode Island Normal
AN INTRODUCTORY STORY BY E. A. NO YES.
The story of the plan fittingly to commemorate the fortieth
anniversary of the re-establishment, in Providence, of the
Rhode Island State Normal School need not be a long one.
As the result of a conference between Arthur W. Brown
and Thomas W. Bicknell, and the publication in the Providence
Journal of an interview with the latter, a meeting of graduates
was called to consider the matter.
This meeting was held on Saturday, April first, at Mr.
Brown's office. He was elected chairman, with Mrs. Elisha
Greene as secretary. It was the sense of the meeting that
some fitting observance of the opening of the school should be
held, and that September sixth, the fortieth anniversary of that
occasion, would be the appropriate date for such observance.
Arthur W. Brown, Lester A. Freeman, Mrs. George
Thurber Brown, Miss Gertrude Arnold, and Mrs. Ira N. Goff,
all of the first class to be graduated, were requested to select a
general committee of arrangements, and to report thereon at
a meeting of the Alumni to be held at the call of the Chair
through the public press.
68 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Such a meeting was held at the Normal School a week
later, when in accordance with a report of the committee on
nominations, an executive committee was chosen to arrange
for the proposed commemoration. This committee finally
stood as follows : Chairman, A. W. Brown, '72 ; Secretary,
E. A. Noyes, '78; Treasurer, Mrs. W. F. Kenney, '72; other
members of the committee were, Gertrude E. Arnold, '72 ;
John H. Bailey, '82; Mrs. Esek Case, '74; Mrs. S. Gushing, '85 ;
Franklin R. Cushman, '87; Ida M. Gardner, '74; Cornelia M.
Goff, '74; Eudora E. Joslin, '84; Mrs. R. W. Knight, '73;
Etta V. Leighton, '96; Mrs. J. J. Lonsdale, '72; Estella C.
Macdonald, '99; Mrs. George E. Manchester, '73; Mrs. E. D.
McGuiness, '76; Mrs. W. H. White, '73.
Hon. Thomas W. Bicknell, Commissioner of Public Schools
of Rhode Island, 1869 to 1875, was chosen Honorary Chair-
At an adjourned meeting of the graduates, held at the
Normal School on Saturday, April 22nd, the following were
appointed Vice-Presidents, the name of Mrs. Pearl M.
Remington, '94, standing first. Others alphabetically
arranged, included, Valentine Almy, '90 ; Mabel C. Bragg, '89 ;
Edith E. Burdick, '02; Ida M. Carpenter, '02; Deborah R.
Conley, '09 ; Lester A. Freeman, '72 ; Bertha A. Hamlet, '88 ;
and Mrs. Benjamin P. Tabor, '74. Jeanette A. McLaren, '94,
was requested to act as corresponding secretary.
Three meetings of the graduate body were held. At the
last of these, held on May 22nd, it was voted to leave matters
entirely in the hands of the executive committee, and an
adjournment was taken to the call of the chair.
Plans for the celebration provided for a morning session,
devoted to historical and other addresses; a dinner at noon,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 69
and a reunion of former principals, teachers, graduates and
students in the afternoon.
In the development of these plans various sub-committees
worked together efficiently and harmoniously.
Early in June a circular letter was prepared, embodying a
tentative program and inviting all teachers and students of the
school, whether graduates or not, with their husbands or wives,
and school committees, superintendents and teachers of the
Responses came in gratifying numbers, and an unusually
strong program was developed as follows:
Devotional Exercises Rev. G. L. Locke
Words of Welcome His Honor, Mayor Henry E. Fletcher
His Excellency, Governor Aram J. Pothier
Response Principal John E. Alger
'The Significance of the Normal School," Walter E. Ranger
Music Mrs. Alice G. E. Vose, Conductor
Historical Address Gilbert E. Whittemore
"The Future of the Normal School," Thomas W. Bicknell
Comr. in 1871
Brief Addresses, Pres. Ellen Fitz Pendleton, of Wellesley
Pres. Mary E. W r oolley, of Mt. Holyoke
"The Development of the Woman Teacher,"
Miss Sarah E. Doyle
"The Normal School as a Factor in Woman's Advancement,"
Mrs. Richard Jackson Barker
"Forty Years Ago," Frederick W. Tilton
Dinner and Social Hour in the Gymnasium at noon.
70 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Opening Address, Secretary Ranger
Symposium, James C. Greenough, Principal in 1871,
Mrs. Susan C. (Bancroft) Tillinghast and Mrs. Mary L.
(Jewett) Taylor, of his Corps of Assistants, and other
Principals and Teachers or their Representatives.
Auld Lang Syne.
Sept. 6, 1911.
On the morning of the observance, a pouring rain and other
conditions compelled a modification of the program given to
the printer the afternoon previous. Urgent official duties
prevented the attendance of the Mayor and the Governor;
Presidents Pendleton and Woolley were delayed in Europe
by the strike, and a note from Miss Doyle excused her because
of the storm.
The morning program, Mr. Brown presiding, was opened
with devotional exercises conducted by Rev. J. S. Wadsworth,
D. D., and a hymn was sung with Mrs. Alice G. E. Vose, '74>
at the piano.
A greeting from Principal Alger was followed by addresses
by Mr. Ranger, Mr. Whittemore, Mr. Bicknell, Mrs. Barker
and the Rev. G. E. Locke, D. D. These, together with the
remarks of the afternoon gathering, are printed elsewhere
in this volume.
During the noon hour, a dinner, served in the school
gymnasium under the direction of Mrs. Lonsdale and her
associates of the committee on entertainment, afforded a wel-
come opportunity for the renewal of old friendships.
The afternoon exercises were opened by W. W. Andrews,
Assistant Commissioner of Public Schools, who spoke on
E. A. NOYES,
SECRETARY OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF R. I. NORMAL SCHOOL
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 71
"The Heritage of Four Decades." The principal address
was delivered by Mr. Greenough.
Mrs. Taylor and Miss Gardner made a few remarks and
letters were read from former principal Chapin and Miss
Harriette N. Miller, teacher of elocution in the first days of
the school. A telegram from Jennie Tucker Baker, '87, now
of Elmonte, California, breathed the spirit which animates the
entire student body. It read * * * * "For instruction re-
ceived, I owe much; for close friendship with faculty and
student body, I owe more; but to the years of service for
which both fitted me, I owe most."
Out of forty years in the life of the school, classes of thirty-
four different years were represented in the more than two
hundred graduates present at the reunion. The class originat-
ing the plan to observe the anniversary, that of January, 1872,
easily led, fifty per cent, of its twenty living members being
The exercises in commemoration of the fortieth anniversary,
particularly of its closing session, will linger long in the
memory, and the closing prayer by Mr. Greenough will remain
in our hearts as the benediction of a father upon his children.
At a meeting of the committee held on September 16th,
the following resolution was unanimously adopted : Resolved,
"That we endorse the proposition as outlined in Mr. BicknelPs
address, to make of the Rhode Island Normal School, a Normal
College, with all the conditions accompanying such change."
Etta V. Leighton, Gertrude E. Arnold, Mrs. J. F. Lonsdale,
E. A. Noyes and Mrs. W. F. Kenney w r ere appointed a
committee "to confer with the Principal of the Normal School,
its Board of Trustees, and others, with a view of taking such
action as shall bring about such change."
72 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Mr. Bicknell, who was present by invitation, suggested that
a good history of the school would meet a popular demand,
inasmuch as nearly all its records are practically inaccessible to
the public. This suggestion received the hearty concurrence
of the committee. Upon his agreeing to assume the entire
responsibility of the project, financially and otherwise, he was
invited to issue such a history, which shall embody the names
of all its teachers and students, so far as obtainable, together
with the proceedings of the observance of the fortieth anniver-
PRINCIPAL ALGER'S WELCOME.
Mr. Alger spoke briefly, welcoming the alumni, not only to
this event, but to all the public functions of the school. He
said that the school authorities had realized from the first
that this occasion was wholly in the charge of the committees
of the alumni, and had kept their hands off. He expressed
his pleasure, which he said was a rare one under such circum-
stances, at being able to attend in his own school such a
meeting, with the planning of which he had had nothing
whatever to do. After referring to the growth of the school
and to the care that must be taken of its records, he exhibited
a most valuable handwritten history of the school from its
beginnings, illustrated with numerous photographs, which he
placed in the library in order that all might examine it at their
leisure. Who had written this out so carefully, he stated, had
not yet been discovered, but, whoever it was deserved our
thanks. Any who might have other photographs to add to the
collection were urged to bring them to the school in order that
they might be preserved with the others in this book.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 73
AN HISTORICAL REVIEW.
By Gilbert E. Whittemore.
I began teaching school in this State, in December, 1865, and
continued in that work until the year following the establish-
ment of this Normal School, when I left the service on account
of the inadequate salary paid teachers. During the last half of
the seven years of my teaching occurred the most remarkable
revival of interest in public schools that this State ever experi-
enced, and which was marked by the establishment of more
important institutions, and by greater educational progress in
that short time than has ever marked any twenty years since
then. The public were aroused to intense interest in school
matters, appropriations were increased and salaries raised,
over one hundred new school houses replaced old buildings
that had done duty for generations, supervision was authorized
in every town, the tenure of office for school committees was
increased to three years, a State Board of Education was
established, and as a fitting crown to the work, this State
Normal School was launched upon a stable basis, insuring its
growth and permanency.
The question has been asked, "Who were the persons in at
the birth of this Normal School? Who were the men who
planned and carried out the necessary measures to its establish-
ment?" I think it fair that these questions should be
answered. As I look back over these forty years, I discern
four men, among educators, who were in the inner circle of
these workers for educational progress, and I do not think my
memory plays me false, for three of us were in almost daily
conference at that time, and came to know each other
intimately and well, and the fourth was frequently in our
74 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The first was a Newport educator, an able teacher, a correct
thinker in educational matters; a man who could create and
direct public sentiment, and who rendered great service in the
sister capitol, and in many towns and cities of our State Mr.
F. W. Tilton, of Newport.
The second was a young grammar master, successful in his
work, ardent in everything he did, associate editor of the Rhode
Island Schoolmaster, and a frequent writer on matters of
education for the daily press, a leader with classes from his
school in teachers' institutes, an organizer, an expert parlia-
mentarian and debater, who was of especial service in draft-
ing and aiding in their adoption by the legislatures of those
laws only upon which could the newly established institutions
The third was a teacher in the Providence high school,
associate editor of the Rhode Island Schoolmaster, a man who
could successfully solve educational problems, a man who
gained the confidence of all with whom he came in contact, an
embodiment of many virtues which in an intimate acquaintance-
ship of thirty years I never found wanting, a man who in after
years did good service as Commissioner of Public Schools,
winning the respect and esteem of every teacher in the State,
Hon. Thomas B. Stockwell.
The fourth was our leader, a giant physically and intellect-
ually, whose mind conceived the things that ought to be done
and whose persuasive eloquence advocated them; a man so
full of zeal and courage that he inspired all he enlisted into
the service to work to the uttermost ; a man so optimistic that
failure was never thought of; a man endowed with a
persistance and energy I have never seen excelled. If any
man has the right to the title of Founder of the Rhode
Island Normal School, it is the man of whom I am now
THOMAS W. BICKNELL.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 75
speaking, the then recently appointed Commissioner of Public
Schools the then unquestioned leader of the educational
forces of the State Hon. Thomas W. Bicknell.
Although successes followed each other with marvelous
rapidity and certainty, it was not all without difficulties and
obstacles that this great work was accomplished. Some
Providence educators proposed sidetracking the Normal
School into a normal department of the Providence High
School, and it was only after this school had achieved a com-
manding position in the training of teachers that the educators
of Providence came to fully utilize its great advantages.
THE FUTURE OF THE RHODE ISLAND NORMAL
By Thomas W. Bicknell.
"Whatever you would have appear in the life of a nation,
you must put into the schools," is a Prussian maxim which
led to the founding of German Normal Schools, in the
We may add another maxim equally true. Whatever you
would put into the schools, you must first put into the teachers,
through the agencies, which prepare them for their work.
Seventy-two years ago there was but one State Normal
School in the United States. Horace Mann was its founder.
It was located at Lexington, Mass., and was supported in part
by private and by part by public funds. It had three
teachers and began with three students. The annual cost
of its maintenance was less than $5,000.
To-day there are 264 public and private Normal Schools
in the United States, with more than 88,000 normal students,
76 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
under the instruction of 4,000 teachers, graduating 15,430
students annually, and costing for their maintenance approxi-
The public Normal School properties in funds, buildings,
grounds, apparatus, libraries, etc., exceed $36,000,00; of this
vast figure, Rhode Island has $550,000, Massachusetts,
$2,600,000, New York, $3,530,000, Pennsylvania, $4,396,000.
In number of schools, Massachusetts has n, New England, 26,
New York, 18, Pennsylvania, 17, and Wisconsin, 15; all other
states and territories except Alaska, have one or more.
The enormous size of our national educational budget, is
$4 OI >397>747> against about $100,000,000, in 1871, when the
Rhode Island Normal School was founded. We employ
506,463 teachers, 108,300 of whom are men and 398,153
women. Of this grand total, it is estimated that about one
half have received some normal instruction.
The estimated value of public school property is one billion
The average length of the annual school term in days, is
J 55 or 3 1 weeks. In the North Atlantic district, it is 180
days or 36 weeks. The average attendance of children
between 5 and 18 years is 81 days, with 102, in the North
Normal schools have accomplished valuable results
educationally, some of which we may mention.
1. They have established higher standards of instruction
for our common schools than existed before.
2. They have increased the academic knowledge of teachers
by courses of study, which have not only emphasized the
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 77
common branches of public school instruction, but have also
widened the area of the teacher's curriculum of preparatory
3. They have improved the methods of instruction,
especially in the primary grades, and have made the teacher
a real teacher and the pupil a real student and thinker.
4. The professional standing of the teacher has been vastly
elevated by the normal school. Salaries have been advanced
fourfold, the school year has been lengthened, school houses,
text-books, apparatus, and all school material have been
5. By educational induction, the whole system of instruc-
tion has been elevated with certain exceptions, and the whole
teaching force of the country, numbering in the common
schools almost half a million of persons, has been made better,
intellectually, morally, and professionally.
These facts and figures as to Normal Schools in the
United States, establish these important positions:
First: It is a recognized and permanent form of public
instruction for professional teaching.
Second: The State is under an assumed obligation to
educate all teachers for all public schools.
Third: The Normal School or college, sets the standard
of all public school instruction and determines its efficiency and
The normal idea has had a remarkable growth and a more
remarkable evolution. The growth is illustrated in part by the
figures already stated. Its evolution is shown in the courses
of study, and the breadth of the training involved. The
germinal idea of the Normal School was mainly professional.
Mr. Mann's school was started on that basis, and Normal
78 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
schools continued on that line of work for many years, mark-
ing time on lines of methods, with some hints of the philosophy
and psychology of school keeping. It will always hold its
professional standards and values.
Normal work, however, for the last two decades has
advanced more rapidly and more philosophically, than any
other form of education. While the colleges have enlarged
their curricula, they have not strengthened the bases by clearer
philosophic methods or by the deeper understanding of
psychological growth, and the best training of the student-body.
As between a four years' course at college, and the same period
at a first-class Normal School, the later is to be preferred on
most grounds. The college student crams his mathematics,
his rhetoric and his history, and ponies his classics as did his
grandfather before him, and graduates from the university
with a more practical knowledge of the work of the "college
nine," and of his fraternity, than of the sciences, the
philosophies, the mathematics, or the languages that swell the
college prospectuses. While the higher education has looked
askance at Normal training, it must now acknowledge that in
the race for practical results, year for year, topic by topic,
the school has won the laurels of successful competitorship,
with heavy odds and handicaps against it.
The Rhode Island Normal School.
It is my purpose in this address to set forth some of the
lines along which Normal Schools must and will move in the
near future towards the ideals which their friends of public
education desire to see attained. It is the forward look that
I shall take in this address. Nevertheless, I should do
injustice to the Rhode Island Normal School of to-day, if I
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 79
did not congratulate its business management and teaching
corps upon its splendid present ; with a finely appointed home,
an excellent teaching corps, and a body of students, zealous
to qualify themselves for the superior work of teaching. Nor
can I forget the able men and women who have administered
instruction and discipline here for four decades. To name
one would be an invidious distinction in a long catalogue of
faithful normal teachers. Their names are gratefully held in
trust by their pupils. A good pupil never forgets a good
teacher. Each lives in the other.
The high standard of our Normal School was set by the
first Principal, Mr. James C. Greenough, and his fortunate,
yea more, his wise choice of assistants in Miss Susan C.
Bancroft, now Mrs. Leonard Tillinghast, and Miss Mary L.
Jewett, now Mrs. Charles F. Taylor, with specialists in some
I doubt if any school in any State, was ever established
under more competent and more popular instructors. To
these should be added the name of Miss Sarah Marble, now
Mrs. J. H. Shedd, who occupied a high position, and exercised
a strong and healthy influence in the school for more than
30 years, beginning with the first year of Mr. Greenough's
To many Rhode Islanders of 1871, the State Normal School
was only an experiment. There was no settled conviction that
the school would outlast a decade, and become a permanent
part of our State system. Its origin was traced to a young
enthusiast, whose dreams had far exceeded all possible work-
ing realities. The fate of a former experiment at Providence
and another at Bristol, overshadowed the future of the new
school, at Providence. The Commissioner was told by more
than one influential legislator, that he voted for the Normal
8o RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
bill and the appropriation of $10,000, more out of regard for
the views and earnest pleas of the Commissioner of Public
Schools, than for his faith in the success of the enterprise.
When the history of the founding of the Rhode Island
Normal School shall be fairly and faithfully told, it will give
due credit to many persons, not now recognized or even
known, as most valuable friends and helpers. When friends
were few, and general apathy held sway in all parts of the
State, with organized opposition in some influential quarters.
I cannot, however, wait the advent of the historian to record
the names of three men, who were true and noble supporters,
not only of the Commissioner of Public Schools, but of the
normal idea, and gave to it their constant and undivided
support. They were Hon. Seth Padelford, Governor of the
State, from 1869 to 1873, Hon. George Washington Greene,
the distinguished historian, then a Representative in the
General Assembly from the town of East Greenwich,
and chairman of the Committee on Education, in the House,
and Hon. E. L. Freeman, a Senator from the City of Central
Falls, an influential politician, and a practical business man.
The official buttress of the inchoate school was the State
Board of Education, created by an act, which passed the
General Assembly, February, 1870, on recommendation of the
Commissioner of Public Schools. This Board was made
the trustee of the State Normal School, on the adoption of the
Normal School bill, in 1871.
The Normal School campaign was on from June, 1869,
increasing in force from month to month, until March 15,
1871, when the Act to establish a State Normal School, in
Rhode Island, became a law, with an appropriation of $10,000
for its annual support, and $1,500 for mileage travel, to
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 81
equalize so far as possible, the privileges of the school, to
all candidates for teaching, in all parts of the State.
The Normal School was opened on Sept. 6, 1871, at Normal
Hall, High street (now Westminster street), Providence, with
three teachers and 106 students, 150 young men and women
taking the examination. The fortieth anniversary of this
event we commemorate to-day, Sept. 6, 1911.
During this period of a generation of men, the school has
had seven principals : James C. Greenough, Thomas J. Morgan,
George A. Littlefield, William E. Wilson, Fred Gowing,
Charles S. Chapin, John L. Alger.
It has enrolled over 3,000 students, of whom 2,058 have
received graduating diplomas.
A Normal College.
This of the past. What of the future? First: The time
has come to place the Normal School on its proper base, as a
professional school for the most numerous and most influential
profession in the United States. Its heavy handicap must be
removed, and its organization must be established, as the plan
of other professional institutions of the State and country.
The first change, is that of its name.
The name Normal School, should be changed to that of
Normal College. Nomenclature the true naming of an
institution is as important to its success, as is that of a person,
a corporation, or a State.
Twenty young ladies graduate with equal diplomas, from
a High School. A majority of the number will enter a
Women's College, and the minority, a Normal School, when
all may be bent on teaching. The name school, is primary
to that of college, and the diploma of the college is more
significant and valuable, as a pecuniary, moral and
82 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
educational asset than the certificate of the Normal School.
The one has a recognized value in the intellectual world far in
excess of the other. Two ladies present themselves as candi-
dates for assistants in a city high school, salary $1,200, one
has a diploma of Pembroke or Wellesley, the other a diploma
of the Rhode Island Normal School. Other things
being equal, the college girl gets the position, and the Normal
girl must fall back to a lower position and salary. This is
Change the name of our Normal School to Normal College
and you place it, nominally, on the same plane as other colleges ;
and of a truth the teaching fraternity has a right to all
the advantages that an underpaid profession can possibly be
entitled to or that the governing powers can bestow.
It follows, of course, that the titles of the normal teachers
shall correspond with those of the regular college ; a matter of
great importance, in that it establishes a rank above the titles
of the regular common-school teachers, whom they prepare for
The principal of the Normal College will be President, and
the teachers will be Professors, as their characters, abilities and
qualifications should entitle them to be called. These titles
not only give an increased dignity to the teacher and his
calling, but they also place him on an equality in rank with
his brother on the hill, at Brown or Pembroke.
Another gain would occur to the normal teacher: an'
increase in salary in proportion to the character of the work
to be done, and the rank of the professorship filled. To
student and professor alike would come the increased feeling
of importance of the work of teaching, its greater significance
and value in the attitude of the State.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 83
Normal College Curriculum.
Important as are the titular matters, the vital concern on
which these rest is the curriculum the course of studies
which the Normal College should present to the future
teachers of Rhode Island. The time has arrived when the
Rhode Island Normal School should cease to do preparatory
work. At the outset of the Normal School, it was supposed
to be its function to methodize common school studies. The
Normal School graduate was considered fairly well equipped
for beginning the work of a teacher, if the course of study
and practice had included a thorough review of the elementary
school branches, with painstaking practice in the methods of
teaching them. A little time was devoted to the completion
of high school studies, child psychology, school hygienics,
school organization, and management. The teacher was
specially well equipped if she had been able to devote a year's
work to advanced psychology, the philosophy of education,
advanced pedagogy, and a study of educational problems.
To-day, matters are wholly changed, so much so that the
average graduate of twenty years ago, would be only qualified
to enter the lower grades of the first-class schools in the
country. While the requirements for admission vary widely,
three general functions are now required in all first grade
Normal Schools, cultural, professional, and vocational. In
the early day, the emphasise was on the professional side.
To-day the tendencies are cultural and vocational, and this
important change happily originated from the demands of the
students and the people.
According to U. S. Commissioner Brown, in his report on
Normal Schools for 1910, the leading Normal schools of our
country may point to three important guideposts of advance-
ment: (i) They require for admission the completion of a
84 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
four-year high school course or its equivalent; (2) they offer
four-year degree courses, cultural and vocational, as well as
professional, parallel to regular college courses; (3) they
provide for specialization in manual arts, domestic economy,
agriculture, and the natural sciences. The increasing demand
for teachers of special subjects has made this necessary. Of
the 196 State Normal Schools, 150 offer opportunities for such
specialization in manual arts, domestic economy, etc., above
The modern reaction in the highest educational circles
towards cultural studies is one of the most significant signs of
a saner student life. Of colleges, Harvard, under President
Lowell and Amherst under President Harris, in New England,
are taking the firm stand for more fixed cultural studies and
a narrower circle of electives. The teaching profession must
build on the sure foundations of philosophy, the classics,
history, science, and mathematics if it would build surely and
permanently. And it is delightfully encouraging to know
that the demand for more thorough standards in the essentials
of a liberal education springs from the teaching fraternity
Professor James, in his first chapter on the problems of
philosophy, says, "Philosophy, indeed, in one sense of the
term is only a compendious name for the spirit in education,
which the word "college" stands for in America. Things
can be taught in a dry, dogmatic way, or in a philosophic way.
At a technical school a man may grow into a first-rate in-
strument for doing a certain job, but he may miss all the
graciousness of mind suggested by the term, liberal culture.
He may remain a cad, and not a gentleman, intellectually
pinned down to his one narrow subject, literal, unable to
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 85
suppose anything different from what he has seen, without
imagination, atmosphere or mental perspective/'
Still more he calls philosophy, or liberal culture, the parent
of four different human interests, science, poetry, religion and
It is felt that cultural studies fit for the best work, give
power, efficiency and high enjoyment in it, and as an added
compensation, better pecuniary rewards.
The demand for teachers in specialized and vocational work
is increasing, year by year. Commissioner Brown states
that trained teachers in domestic economy are needed, and
that there is a crying need for teachers of agriculture in the
secondary schools. He urges that at least one teacher in
each public high school should be qualified to give instruction
in agriculture, and the natural sciences, so closely related. In
the specialization of vocational work in teaching, the Normal
Schools of the Middle West have a long lead over our older
New England schools.
As an illustration, I cite the State Normal at Greely,
Colorado ; under manual arts are taught tool work, sheet metal
work, Venetian iron work, wood carving, staining and finish-
ing; under domestic economy are, cooking, sewing, dress-
making, art needlework, house furnishings and decorations;
under agriculture are, nature study, school gardening, outdoor
art, elementary agriculture ; under sciences are, botany, zoology,
physics, chemistry and physiography.
In our State, a State of artists and artisans, the value of
vocational schools and of vocational training to the teacher
manifests itself in many ways. These schools will not make
finished workmen of the pupils, but will, direct their mental
activities; will interest them in things industrial; will teach
86 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
them to think in terms of things, in processes of work, and to
interpret plans and drawings. It will hold in the school, the
pupils not easily held by books, to the end that the manual
training obtained, if given intelligently, will be a direct begin-
ning in acquiring a trade or vocation. Pupils are conscious of
powers, passions and tasks, which the schools do not recognize.
They long to grasp things with their own hands, to test the
strength of materials, and the magnitude of forces. A
Darius Green, with his embryo flying machine in his brain
may be found in every school, and the teacher with vocational
as well as cultural training may be the discoverer of genius to
itself, and of the fitness and qualification of the pupils for his
special life work.
Normal College Degrees.
At the completion of a Normal College course of four
years, based on a thorough High School preparation, in which
the Normal student has become indoctrinated in liberal,
vocational and professional studies, degrees should be con-
ferred, corresponding to those for regular college quadrennial
graduates. It is easy to see that a Normal College graduate
with the usual title of A. B., a most fitting title for the course
of study pursued, would enjoy many and great advantages over
the present graduates.
Maturity in years, increased physical development, higher
culture, superior insight to comprehend the problems of child
culture, leadership growing out of self-conscious power,
organizing ability, social and intellectual rank, and larger
compensation are among them. Teachers would cost more,
they would be worth more.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 87
In order that the teachers may not lose the stimulus of
progress, and emulation, the Normal College will add to its
curricula supplementary special courses, the value of which
will be credited to the student, by an added degree of A. M.
or some other title.
Our highest grades of teachers and "supervisors now study
abroad in France, Germany or England, and this is an expen-
sive plan, as well as one that reflects on our American
professional institutions, as compared with European condi-
Germany, with its system of public instruction based on
military and monarchical principles is not the best school for
the educators of a democracy, in a republic. The idealism of
William of Berlin, is not comparable with that of William
of Washington, and idealism is the perfection of educational
Training For School Supervision.
The last twenty-five years and more, notably the last ten,
have witnessed the growth of a new department of skilled
educational work, to wit, local supervision of public schools.
While State and country supervision has been widely recog-
nized, it now remains to fulfill the educational system by a
more detailed and closer relationship of the superintendent to
the individual teacher and school. The importance of this
intimate contact and oversight few can estimate at its real
value. In business affairs, supervision is the governor with
capital as power ; in education, supervision is the balance wheel
with knowledge as the main-spring. I do not need to tell
this audience of educated men and women that the supervisor
should possess education, experience and organizing ability in
excess of those of the teachers he is set to superintend and a
88 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
knowledge of school systems and the philosophy of education,
superior to that of his ward; otherwise both the teacher and
taught fail to receive the full measure of profit the school
It is evident that the Superintendent should be a normally
educated man along several well recognized special lines.
Let me mention pedagogy, psychology, philosophy, school
organization, discipline, vocational work, school hygienics,
school architecture, and school finances. For this training,
the Normal School of the future will offer a two years' course
in addition to the regular course of four years. The superin-
tendent of the future will hold the degree of A. B., as a
quadrennial Normal graduate. He will have had at least five
years successful teaching experience, and later or earlier,
two years of superintendent training.
As an equivalent of one of these two years a year of foreign
travel for school inspection may be substituted. This train-
ing would give us a class of men and women competent to
handle our public schools, and towards this standard we are
New York has just established a system of district super-
vision, worthy of note. The State has 48 City Superintend-
ents, and 281 village and district -supervisors. Each district
supervisor has a territory of about 140 square miles, contain-
ing an average of 125 teachers, and receiving a minimum
salary of $15,000.
Massachusetts has 189 Superintendents, each having an
average district area of 43 square miles, with 80 teachers.
There are now about 1,500 city, county and district Superin-
tendents in the United States with salaries varying from
$400 to $10,000 the latter sum being paid to W. H.
Maxwell, of New York and Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, of
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 89
Chicago. The average Superintendent's salary is about $2,000
in the United States.
With the qualifications I have named possessed by the
candidate, supervison would become at once the most lucrative
and the most attractive post in the teaching profession.
The day is not far off when our State Normal School will
welcome to a scholarly course, the aspirants for the higher
positions, honors and emoluments of the teaching profession,
and the day is not far distant when our grammar and high
school principals will be normal as well as college graduates,
and when our State, city and district Superintendents shall
have passed the third degree of the mystic shrine.
I have endeavored to show the steps by which the present
Normal School is to attain for itself and the students graduat-
ing from it the high position to which they are entitled and
the enhanced influence and excellence attending and resulting
from their work. Until these important and somewhat
radical changes are made, the Normal School is in the position
of the uniformed soldier, marking time, without advancing to
the battle line.
When the Normal College shall have reached the place and
work I have assigned to it, several valuable results will follow.
Let me name a few. The President will be an associate
member of the State Board of Education, and its educational
advisor. The State system will be a part of the recognized
work of adjustment of the Normal College. The Normal
faculty will be made a State Council, acting in conjunction
with State, city and district or town Superintendents as to
salaries, course of study, text-books, school literature, school
periods, vocational schools, etc. The fountain will then de-
termine and direct the flow of the streams, issuing therefrom.
90 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The Normal Faculty will be an integral part of a national
and an international Normal University in which shall be
studied and formulated the deeper and broader principles of
state, national and international systems and relations. This
great and wide Republic of sound pedagogic wise men, scien-
tific experts in education, will then come to command the
attention of the world, as the conservators of government,
and of social, industrial and civic life. The teacher will then
have entered his own province of intellectual and moral
force in the making of man and society and in the advance
of civilization, the world over.
There remains a declaration of a few basis educational
principles and I am done. It underlies all I have said, and all
that educators in Rhode Island, the United States, England,
Germany, the world over are hoping to accomplish.
Education is the unfolding and developing of full manhood,
physical, industrial, intellectual, spiritual; and manhood, is
the basis of citizenship.
That the child is capable of development into independent
manhood and citizenship, is, of itself, conclusive evidence of
the child's right to such education.
Every child, born into American citizenship, has the indi-
vidual right to such an education as will fit him to fulfill most
completely the duties and obligations of manhood and citizen-
ship, and to secure the child in the enjoyment of this right,
the entire resources of the State are an absolute and a sacred
MRS. RICHARD JACKSON BARKER,
CHAIRMAN OF SCHOOL BOARD
TIVERTON, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 91
As it is the imperative duty and paramount interest of the
State to provide an adequate education for all its citizens,
it is the duty as well as the right of the State to see that the
necessary education, thus provided, be fully and universally
As the education of the child is the chief function of the
State, the education of the teacher of the child must include
as well as exceed all that is embraced in child education, to
the end that the teacher may become the most potent factor
in upbuilding a more honorable State through a better edu-
cated citizenship. The normal ideal for teaching includes a
liberal culture, professional training and vocational studies
and practice, enriched by all the resources of sound learning,
and wisdom, the growth of knowledge, experience and obser-
vation. On these principles the normal educated men and
women of Rhode Island should stand committed as the sheet
anchor of their Faith and Labors.
THE NORMAL SCHOOL AS A FACTOR IN WOMEN'S
Mrs. Richard Jackson Barker.
The President, Mr. Brown, then introduced in compli-
mentary and felicitous terms, Mrs. Richard Jackson Barker,
Chairman of the Tiverton School Committee, stating that
Mrs. Barker was not only an active officer now, but had held
the office for sixteen consecutive years and had been in close
touch with the Normal School by experience and inheritance
for a longer period than her official life, as she would tell the
92 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
audience in giving a reminiscent view to her address, which
would deal with what education has done to advance woman.
Like Mr. Bicknell, Mrs. Barker was greeted and interrupted
by applause. After addressing the chair, the Commissioner
and the ex-Commissioner, she said:
I might well begin my remarks by saying that this notable
occasion thoroughly demonstrates what education has done
to advance woman. I could most appropriately say that edu-
cation for women has made college presidents and that the
State of Rhode Island can rest upon her laurels along these
lines. I could dwell upon the lives of Miss Sarah E. Doyle,
Miss Mary E. Woolley and the new President of Wellesley
and what they have done through education for the advance-
ment and betterment of the conditions of woman. But I
must pass to the educated woman of every-day life, who has
not attained the great heights of distinction that these women
This is an anniversary of reminiscences in a certain sense.
Those of us who have arrived at an age when our memories
go backward into vital decades, find this occasion full of rec-
ollections of people and events that many who are present can
only recall by traditions. To me has been allotted the pleasant
duty of telling in a general reminiscent way something of
this school and what education has done to advance woman
during these past forty years.
As I turn to my left and see my friend, the Honorable
Thomas W. Bicknell in the full vigor of perennial youth, it
seems but a short time ago that I, as a very little girl, expe-
rienced the great honor of meeting the worthy gentleman,
regarded as a veritable giant in the educational world of my
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 93
A School Committee of Women.
Way back in the late 6o's and early 70*5 of the eighteen
hundreds there was a little group of three educated women
in the town of Tiverton who felt that the time had come for
women to take an active interest in school affairs. These
good, gentle ladies so moulded unconsciously the opinion of
the intelligent men in their community that they were elected
as "The Honorable School Committee of the Town of Tiv-
erton." Mark you, ladies and gentlemen, this was the first
great step forward for the advancement of woman upon
school boards in this country and it was based entirely upon
intellectual ability. One of that School Committee was my
own mother, of sainted memory. Mrs. Lawton graduated
from the Warren Female Seminary, that well known seat of
learning that flourished under the late Asa Messer Gammell
about the first quarter of the last century; another of that
Board was Mrs. Barker, who became my mother-in-law,
educated at the venerable and time honored Friends' School,
while the third member, Miss Brown, was thoroughly
equipped for the new work at Prof. Henry Fay's Private
School in Newport.
What That Committee Did.
After a hard fought election at a Town Meeting where
every voter was on hand to line up as "for or against the
women," they entered upon their duties, elected by one major-
ity. This was the first School Commission in the United
States comprised of women. They were on trial all over the
country. It was a strange innovation in the eyes of many.
The press took it up and editorials appeared in many promi-
nent newspapers of the day. Some were favorable, others
doubtful, a few semi-sneered and one printed a cartoon that
grieved and mortified those women of by-gone days ; but they
94 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
never faltered; they realized upon their shoulders was placed
the burden of being pioneers. Commendation and honor and
blame came to them and all along they held to their unalter-
able purpose to raise the standard of the Tiverton schools,
to secure better teachers and up-to-date text-books. Nor did
that little band of committee women stop there. They wanted
better school buildings, school houses with better ventilation
and in more attractive environments. They did not talk of
germs and microbes; those terms were not fashionable then.
Those women plead for sanitary measures. They met many
difficulties, problems in that typical, conservative New Eng-
land town. Often I, as a very little girl, would overhear
them talking in my mother's home and some of these times
I knew instinctively, that they were well-nigh discouraged,
and then one or the other would say, "we will talk it over
with the School Commissioner," and the tone used seemed
to imply that that Commissioner was a veritable Moses to lead
them to victory, and this leads back to the beginning of my
acquaintance with the Honorable Thomas W. Bicknell. He
was the Commissioner who helped those three women do their
duty in those trying times. He was the authority that women
were eligible to serve as School Committee in Rhode Island
and that they could be elected at a town meeting by the elec-
tors in Tiverton. I do not know which was the most proud
of the result, Commissioner Bicknell or those women and
their friends, that this State had gone on record the first in
the Union for this action of the electors. Unsparing of him-
self, he went at almost a minute's notice at the call, rode on
those dreadful roads, in all weathers, when they condemned
school houses and changed boundary lines, supporting them
fearlessly against angry voters who did not .want too many
changes, openly rebelling against too much progress. It was
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 95
Thomas W. Bicknell who watched over and guided that first
School Board of women in the United States and made it
easy for women elsewhere to serve in a like capacity.
Some twenty years after, when the great city of Chicago
took up the movement, who shall say that the seed was not
planted by those three women, Mrs. Lawton, Mrs. Barker and
Miss Brown in the town of Tiverton, Rhode Island? Who
shall dare say that the influence of that Nestor of Education,
Thomas W. Bicknell, was not felt in a far away state?
Forty years! It is a long way back. Since those women
were elected there have been rapid strides in the advance-
ment of women through education. To-day one of our large
cities has a wonderful woman Superintendent of Schools.
To-day women hold chairs in colleges, minister to the sick as
skilled physicians. Through their legal knowledge women
draw up wills and plead successfully. We have an instance
of this in our own State. So far as is known Miss Mary Anne
Greene is the only woman who has appeared before the full
Women at the Front.
In the present century woman enters into nearly all the
avenues for breadwinning that formerly her brother used to
control. Always during these forty years woman has grasped
every opportunity to better her conditions through education.
She has trained herself at normal schools and colleges to
teach. She has seized every invention for her advancement.
To-day we find her as an expert accountant, stenographer, tel-
egrapher, in charge of telephone exchanges, managers of
various kinds of business, and in every walk of life she is
giving of her intellect and preparation for the advancement
of other women. With all she has accomplished it has not
96 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
marred her character or weakened her in the greatest of all
places for woman the home. She is a more intelligent
wife, a better mother because her mind has been more thor-
oughly trained.' In all great reforms she has stood bravely to
the front. She has safeguarded her babies by her stern cry
for better milk. When the country was aroused for pure
food it was that magnificent body of women's clubs all over
the broad land which was the power behind the throne of
public opinion. When medical inspection in the public
schools was first brought forward it was the mother's influ-
ence brought to bear upon officials.
Forty Years of Normal Work.
What about this very school whose honorable life we are
now gathered together to celebrate? Forty years ago Provi-
dence did not care very much for a Normal School. This
city did not realize its need. It was a woman, my own mother
Mrs. Lawton, who said fearlessly, "the City of Providence
may be able to do good work without such a training-ground,
but the town of Tiverton realizes the necessity of such an
institution and so does every country town. We, the wives
and mothers, want better fitted teachers for our boys and
girls." Mark you, ladies and gentlemen, it was the country
towns that rallied to the support of the Rhode Island State
Normal School, and this reorganized Normal School can well
be termed a monument to Thomas W. Bicknell. It was he
who founded the State Normal School, who secured the
appropriation from the Legislature to run it, and it was his
influence with the country towns that in the main secured the
attendance, and so to-day we hail and congratulate him.
This fortieth anniversary is full of recollection. I recall the
name of Morgan who stood firm for the advancement of the
Normal School (applause), the name of Littlefield and the
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 97
inspiration of the man (applause) ; and one other rises in my
memory, one who loved and worked for this building, Thomas
B. Stockwell (applause). We are fortunate in having with
us to-day Commissioner Bicknell who started the plan and Mr.
Greenough the first principal (applause), but we miss that
calm presence of the noble Thomas B. Stockwell, who was with
us when this stately building was thrown open to the public.
No doubt there are others present who received the same
warm pressure of the hand and heard these words : "It is a
magnificent building and we have come into our own home,"
but because looking we are looking backward, I give you
Mr. Stockwell's greeting to me.
Three Commissioners of Education have watched over this
Normal School and made this occasion possible. Our pres-
ent Commissioner, the Honorable Walter E. Ranger, is the
last of the great trio. We all know how ably he has succeeded
our loved Mr. Stockwell. Under his care, with the scholarly
principal Prof. Alger, the Rhode Island Normal School will
reach even a higher standing than is now generally ac-
THE HERITAGE OF FOUR DECADES.
William IT. Andrews, Assistant Commissioner of Public
We are together this afternoon to honor the completion
of forty years of successful effort of the school at the head of
the public school system. The life of the present day in all
its phases in conducted through organization. Society,
industry, and education are organized into systems through
which the individual works to obtain the things which he
desires. Perhaps one of the most formal divisions of human
activity occurs in the field of education. We have the
98 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
system with its kindergarten, elementary, secondary, normal,
collegiate and university groups. I believe that this formal
separation leads us many times to believe that education has
been wholly given over to the organized forms for carrying
it out; that when these are successfully completed, education
stops', and we have as a product of their activities, an educated
man ; then the real work of life begins. This is not true,
because it contradicts the physical facts of our make-up.
Define education in any terms that are true and the fact still
remains that education in itself is not an activity of which the
schools are an absolutely necessary part. In other words,
define it as you will, education is a continuous living process,
the result of which is an individual continually progressing in
the art of best living, the school during one stage of his
career being one of the many means to that end.
And the schools for this particular stage form the most
desirable means for the educative process. In them, the
pupil acquires the implements which the life process needs to
be successful. Let us see what this equipment is and of
what this later intellectual life consists. Of course he learns to
read. But reading in itself is valueless; it is only as the
individual uses it for his greater ends that it becomes a source
of profit and enjoyment. He should not cease to read upon
leaving school. From the training received there, "there
should result a taste for interesting and improving reading
which should direct and inspire all subsequent life."
Of course, he learns to write, but he ought not to stop writing
upon leaving school. As the complexities of life multiply,
through its true use, he enters into the relations of business
and friendship, keeping alive all that is good and true in our
dealings one with another. By it, individual solitude to him
will become unknown, for at any time he can communicate
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 99
with his fellow beings, expressing his success and failure, his
joys and sorrows, to receive in return the benefits which come
from mutual human companionship.
Of course, he studies history, and learns to reconstruct
the life of other times and other peoples. But that recon-
struction will be valueless to him unless he uses it later
to recognize the common essential virtues which underlie
differences of race, nationality, condition and development;
to regulate the present through a knowledge of the mistakes
of the past.
I might further enumerate the subjects in our curriculum,
showing how the modern school seeks not only the intellectual,
but the moral and physical development of the child as well;
but it is unnecessary that I should do so.
That the youth of our State may enter into the heritage of
the past, that they may properly equip themselves for the
duties of citizen and parent, the State has established its
schools and placed at their head the greatest of all schools,
the laboratory in which is trained one element of success, the
teacher. The Rhode Island Normal School trains teachers,
and through them it has in its control the future history of the
State. No institution of society can possibly have a greater
or more important function. And in its performance of this
function, the people of this State have always taken the greatest
pride. In the past, it has always ''turned a keen, untroubled
face, home to the instant need of things," thus in the future
may it always do.
ioo RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
THE RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL;
ITS TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS.
By James C. Gre enough.
To-day we gladly commemorate a great event the found-
ing of the present Normal School of Rhode Island. For
forty years its increasing usefulness has improved the schools,
in every part of the State. It has helped not alone the public
schools, it has strengthened the work of the Sabbath School,
of the church and the home. It has helped every beneficent
agency within the State and ministered to the well-being of
A great event is often veiled in affairs seemingly trivial. Of
such affairs connected with the earlier years of the school
you expect me to speak.
Before referring to my own time, I wish to acknowledge
the great work that had been done in advance of my coming,
by the Honorable Commissioner of Public Schools, and those
associated with him in founding the State Normal School.
Not only had a building been made ready, but a student-
body had been enrolled far beyond the capacity of the rooms
at our command, and the faculty engaged; of more than one
hundred and fifty candidates enrolled on the books, at Com-
missioner Bicknell's office, we found that we could accom-
modate only about one hundred, and the Board of Trustees
was obliged to postpone the entrance of one-third of the appli-
cants till a later period. The school was actually in existence
in embryo before the installation of the building and the in-
troduction of the teachers.
All we had to do was to enter on the work of organization,
classification, and instruction. The machinery was in order,
the power was at hand and we had only to turn the lever, and
JAMES C. GREENOUGH,
FIRST PRINCIPAL, R. I. NORMAL SCHOOL
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 101
the business of the State Normal School began. Such an
experience was as gratifying as it was unexpected and unusual.
The building first occupied by the school was a church
building bought by Hon. Amos C. Barstow, when the church
was united with the Richmond Street Congregational Church,
to form the Union Congregational Church.
A New Home.
The work and the development of the school demanded a
different location, and more and better rooms. Mr. Barstow
had carefully fitted up this building with the expectation and
the hope that the school would occupy it for many years.
Financially and honestly, I think, he believed it would be best
for us and for the State to occupy this building for a long
term of years.
The Board of Education did not seem disposed to move for
a new building until the school had proved that it had come
After some five years in our hired house, during which
brief editorials from my pen urging better accommodations
for the school were kindly accepted and used in nearly every
paper of the State, the Board of Education consented to the
appointment of a committee consisting of Mr. Leach, Super-
intendent of the public schools of Providence, and myself to
meet the Committee on Education in the General Assembly
and present the need of a building suitable for the Normal
School. The success of the school and the good work of
its graduates in different parts of the State had resulted in a
rising tide of sentiment in favor of the school ; but Mr. Leach
seemed neither enthusiastic nor hopeful in attempting to secure
a better building.
102 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
At the time we were to meet the Committee of the Assembly,
I went to his office to accompany him to the State House near-
by. He declined to go, saying that it was his office hour,
during which he must attend to teachers and others who might
call. Alone I met the committee.
The Old Story Repeated.
When I said to them "we need a better building," and was
about to show reason, one of the committee said, "this Normal
School is an experiment. When a man sets out an orchard,
he waits until he finds what the fruit will be before he fences
it." I replied, "If his neighbors had orchards of the same
sort of trees bearing excellent fruit, I hardly think he would
wait to fence it. Most of the States have Normal Schools
doing good work." Another member, a lawyer from Newport,
who did not seem to have much interest in planting a school
in Providence, was disposed to raise a side issue, and asked
whether those who have been trained in a Normal School are
not better teachers than those who have not been so trained.
I replied "Other things being equal, I think they are. I
should prefer employing a minister, a doctor, or a lawyer,
who had received a professional training." "Then," said
he, "ought not the legislature by law to require school commit-
tees to employ graduates of the Normal School in prefer-
ence to other teachers?"
"No," said I. "But you think they are better teachers."
"Other things being equal," said I. "Then," said he "why
not pass a law that they shall have the preference?" "If,"
said I, "I were a candidate for a school and knew because
of my ability tested by experience that I could do better work
than a Normal graduate, who was also a candidate, I should
feel that it was an injustice to employ him rather than myself.
Normal graduates will be employed," I added, "if they do
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 103
better work/' In passing I may add, the graduates without
any legal preference soon began to be employed in the highest
positions in the common schools in Providence and the towns
of the State.
The committee of the Assembly, after I withdrew from the
committee, after some consideration and perhaps with more
hesitation, drew a resolve in favor of securing a suitable
building for the school.
Doubters Still Doubting.
It seems that the decline and closing of the first Rhode
Island Normal School opened in Providence in 1854, removed
to Bristol in 1857, and discontinued in 1865, though taught
by teachers of much ability, made many people disposed to
doubt the expediency of again establishing such a school in
Rhode Island. The marked success in the State of graduates
of Massachusetts Normal Schools, while an undeniable proof
of the value of such schools was often used in connection
with the statement, "Rhode Island is a small State," to show
that it was best for people of this State to look to Massachu-
setts for its supply of trained teachers. This Normal
School has done its part to prove that Rhode Island, though
small in territory, like Attica in ancient Greece, is not
intellectually inferior to any of her sister States. The high
standing of college presidents in Massachusetts who have
been reared in Rhode Island is also clearly in evidence.
Henry Howard was Governor of the State. Much inter-
ested in education, he visited the school, observed its work
and became a whole-hearted friend.
He said to me, "Had I been a member of the Assembly,
when the founding of this school was considered, I should
have voted against it, but the way a school is managed makes
all the difference." He added that he would do all he could
iO4 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
to aid me in securing a suitable building, though he felt that
the Assembly of that year would not pass the resolve. He
went with me in the morning of the day the resolve was to be
presented to the House and urged the speaker to do what he
could to secure its passage.
The member of the House having the resolve in charge
said to one sitting near him as he rose to present the resolve,
"Now you will see a fight," or something to that effect. He
told me later that there were some fifteen men, aided by Mr.
Barstow, prepared to oppose the passage of the resolve. After
one hour of hot debate, during which the school at times was
roughly handled, the supporters of the resolve were defeated
by a decisive vote. Provision was made by the House for a
committee made up of members of the House and Senate to
report at the next annual session to the Assembly on the work
and the needs of the Normal School. That evening I visited
the ardent leader of the opposition and asked him to observe
our present premises and see our needs. This he agreed to do.
Repeating his promise to me at times during the year, the
months passed without a visit from him.
The committee appointed by the Assembly inspected every
department of the work of the school, and considered our
Rev. Augustus Woodbury was chairman of this committee.
He was an able, broad minded man, justly honored by the
varied services he was called upon at different times to per-
form for the community. Mr. Barstow had seen the com-
mittee in season and they were already persuaded that it was
best to accept his generous offer to allow the State to fit up in
the basement, rooms for the scientific or other work of the
school, and pay him a merely nominal rent for the same.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 105
This seemed to the committee the best that for a time could
be done. No arguments of mine sufficed to change their
unanimous decision. This was in the month of June, 1877.
This season so beautiful in Providence was to me the gloomiest
period in the history of the school. The vestry was too
deeply set in the ground to be utilized for class rooms.
The location of the building seemed to me to forbid any
expenditure by the State upon it, even if it could be made
adequate to our needs, which was impossible.
The Knight of the Press.
In the autumn I had an errand that took me to the office
of the Providence Journal.
There I met the editor, both of the morning Journal and
the Evening Bulletin, Mr. Danielson, a man of wonderful toil
and endurance. Though a man of inveterate prejudices, his
views on public affairs were generally accepted as thoughtful
and wise. I think at the time he had more influence in the
conduct of public affairs than any other man in the State.
We had failed to agree after considerable debate upon some
questions respecting the proper work of the common school.
I feared his displeasure, for he wielded a persuasive pen.
Yet I could but admire his valor and his honesty of purpose.
Cautiously at first, but after some years of acquaintance,
he unreservedly in his manner and in his readiness to help
the school and favor me, showed that he reciprocated my
personal regard. He inquired how the school was getting on.
I told him that the teachers and pupils were doing good work,
but I could but feel apprehensive of evils that threatened.
I then told him what the committee of the Assembly had
decided to report to the Assembly respecting the obtaining of
io6 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
He was usually a reticent man as to his plans, but in a very
positive tone he now said, "If the committee make that report
I shall deem it my duty to attack the committee."
I saw at once that these words might have weight with
the chairman of the legislative committee, who well knew
the power of Mr. Danielson. I soon called upon Mr. Wood-
bury and repeated some of the arguments for a building in a
more suitable location and better adapted to our work, adding
that Mr. Danielson had questioned me as to the attitude of the
committee. ''What did he say," said Mr. Woodbury, who
had listened very attentively to what I had said. I told him
the statement of Mr. Danielson. After a slight pause he
said, "I have been thinking more of this matter and I think
it may be well for the committee to report in favor of a new
building." I went home with my mind relieved of the burden
borne for months.
During the next legislative session the report was made
to the Assembly and referred to the appropriate committee.
A good share of the session was spent in considering the
building of a new State house. Many plans were discussed,
one being the building of a wing of the State house for the
Normal School. There were much differences of opinion
respecting site and construction so that nothing definite was
accomplished. When the session at Providence was well
advanced I happened again to meet the leader of the opposi-
tion, who was again in the House, and again allusion was
made to his visiting us. "I promised to visit you," said he.
"I have not. However, I know your need. Last year I was
deceived as to your condition. I have informed myself of
the facts." He added, "Get your committee together and
have them draw a bill and when it is before the House, I will
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 107
help you.'' I well remember in part his exact language ; a
few words I have supplied. I did as he advised. The bill
under his championship and with the aid of others who appre-
ciated the work of the graduates in different parts of the
State, readily passed. The rising tide of sentiment in favor
of the school had reached the halls of legislation.
Mayor Doyle and the Xew Normal Building.
In the meantime the new high school building now known
as the Classical and English High School on the west side of
the city was nearing completion. Mayor Doyle one morn-
ing, took me into his sleigh and while driving past the
high school building on Benefit street, suggested that the
State purchase it for the Xormal School. The value of the
property and the cost of adding to and remodeling it had
been presented to a committee of the legislature.
When the bill in favor of the school reached the Senate it
encountered further opposition from a Bristol member.
After the Senate had adjourned, this member still holding the
floor, I read on my way home from school in the Bulletin,
At once I went to his office, where I found him alone.
Perhaps he felt he had been unduly severe. We had not
gone far in discussing the matter in hand when he said,
"I will be fair with you," and he was as good as his word.
By a process of argument and cross examination showing
legal ability he discussed the plans and policy of the school
and the reason for a suitable building, making notes as he
proceeded. When the Senate again assembled, to the
astonishment of all, he urged the passage of the bill, with a
force equalled only by the vehemence by which he had
attacked it. The opposition under his leadership surrend-
ered. The high school building on Benefit street was pur-
io8 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
chased and remodeled. Later in the year, 1878, the building
was occupied by the school, though the dedicatory address
by Rev. Augustus Woodbury, was not given until January
23, 1879, when the fitting up of the building was completed.
The school entered upon a new era of prosperity.
Honor to Whom Honor is Due.
The aid to all the work of the school rendered by Commis-
sioners Bicknell, and Stockwell, and the Board of Education,
should ever be held in grateful remembrance. Honor is also
due to Mr. Danielson, editor of the Providence Journal for
his strong and steady support of all measures helpful to the
school. Nor can I fail to refer to the aid rendered by the
grammar masters of this city, three of whom I believe were
graduates of the Bridgewater Normal School. The teachers
in this city and throughout the State were ever ready to
appreciate any good work accomplished by the school.
The Greatness of the Teacher.
The first Normal Schools in America were established in
Massachusetts, by the influence of a few strong leaders in
popular education. At the outset, the majority of teachers in
that State did not favor Normal Schools. They held to
their work patiently, persistently and quietly till at length in
that State, and in other States, they wrought a revolution in
the methods and practices of the common school.
In Rhode Island teachers have been foremost in exerting
their influence in favor of Normal schools.
But the ability, source of the maintenance and the progress
of this school is the zeal, the intelligence, and the efficiency of
its graduates, showed in their untiring devotion and skill in
the schools of the State. They housed the school on Benefit
street. This building, beautiful for situation, so comely
and fitting in its arrangements, the joy and pride of the State
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 109
is a monument to the value of their work. But this building
is but an outward emblem. The value of a true teacher's work
can never be measured by anything of material sort. The
soldier rights for his country, the teacher makes it worth
The worth of the people is their character what they are,
physically, mentally and morally, as the result of their own
action, guided by teaching and training. Character is the
bed-rock of the family, the church and the State. Every-
where and always, the true teacher, while helping the pupils
to gain the specific ends set forth in a course of study, is
consciously or unconsciously forming character. The
physical well-being, the development and storing of the intel-
lect for which the teacher strives, gives the pupil the ability to
act vigorously and wisely. So far as the teacher leads by
the study of nature, by literary culture, and by heroic example
to the appreciation of the true, the beautiful, and the good, so
far he opens the soul heavenward, letting in that light that
was never "on land or sea," and so waking its responsiveness
to all that is worthy, that it need not fail of inspiration and
guidance. The true teacher also leads the pupil to determine
the value of persons and things, that is, to judge correctly.
Speaking of the ability to judge, in its higher relations,
President Hadley, of Yale, says, 'The citizen of Zion is a man
of judgment. He has the sense of proportion which enables
him to judge men and things according to their real worth."
Again he says, "To be a Christian means to follow in the foot-
steps of the man, who more than anyone else that ever lived,
saw things in their real sizes and proportions."
Thus in the ability to act, in responsiveness and in a well
trained judgment, the basis of character is laid upon this as
no RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
it is broadened and strengthened. Moral character may be
developed in all its strength and beauty.
All the work of a well ordered school is a means of moral
culture. The accuracy required in observation in thought
and in expression is a training in truthfulness. Obedience
to teachers and submission to the regulations of the school is
a training for the right discharge of civil and social duties.
The self-control required of a pupil gives that self-mastery
by which one holds to the upward course as he strives to
realize his ideals, while he looks beyond the seen and temporal
to the unseen, the eternal.
The profession of teaching includes a larger number of
noble workers than any other. It presents the widest field
for the exercise of the noblest powers. It calls upon one
to invest his efforts in that which is worth the doing.
The teacher strengthens the family, builds the State, and
helps to establish in the world, the kingdom of God.
Tributes to Associates.
Fellow teachers: I am glad that for nearly fifty years my
name was on the roll of active teachers. With my might,
and giving the best I had garnered, I wrought, glad of my
privilege, only wishing that my might had been more and
my resources larger. To the pupils of this school during the
first twelve years of its life, I am much indebted and deeply
endeared. With few exceptions they were earnest and faith-
ful, ever encouraging me to faithful service. I am glad that
my name is enrolled with yours. I to-day rejoice that with
associate teachers Miss Bancroft (now Mrs. Tillinghast),
Miss Jewett, now Mrs. Taylor), and Miss Hay ward, I was
permitted to have a part in laying the foundations of this insti-
MRS. J. HERBERT SHEDD,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. in
These associate teachers are worthy of all honor, and their
mantle falls upon later associate teachers. Miss Marble
(now Mrs. Shedd), had graduated from the Friends School in
this city and had taught several terms.
In the autumn of 1871, soon after entering the school, she
said to me, ''I came intending to stay a few weeks, I now
intend to stay through the year." She little thought that she
would not leave the school until she had completed thirty
years of uninterrupted and very admirable service as a teacher.
Miss Bucklin, valedictorian of the first graduating class, be
gan to teach in the school at the same time as Miss Marble,
1872, and showed herself worthy of a life-long and honorable
career, but a Mr. Lonsdale had other plans to which she
consented. But Mrs. Lonsdale, and others who have left
school to make a home, have not by their promotion lost their
interest nor their influence in this and in other schools. The
family was the first and has ever been the most important
of human institutions. It is the foundation of our social
Miss Deming's untiring and faithful work can never be
forgotten. HOW T can I adequately speak of Miss Gardner,
Miss Kenyon, Miss Short (now Mrs. Barrett), and Miss Lewis.
Words are feeble to express the value of the work of all these,
and of others who rendered occasional aid as teachers. The
value of their work is evident in the life and excellent work
of those whom they faithfully instruct.
Trustees and Teachers.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL TRUSTEES,
Rev. Thomas Shepard, D. D.,
Hon. Samuel G. Arnold,
John J. Reynolds,
Rev. John Boyden,
Hon. William Sprague, Gov.,
Hon. James G. Smith, Gov.,
Benjamin H. Rhoades,
Rev. Frederick Dennison,
Rev. Dr. Dumont,
Bristol, R. 1.
Providence, R. I.
Warwick, R. I.
Wickford, R. I.
Woonsocket, R. I.
Providence, R. I.
Providence, R. I.
Newport, R. I.
Westerly, R. I.
Newport, R. I.
Joshua Bicknell Chapin,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 113
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL TRUSTEES,
Seth Padelford, 1870 to 1873
Henry Howard, 1873 to 1875
Henry Lippitt, 1875 to l &77
Charles C. Van Zandt, 1877 to 1880
Alfred H. Littlefield, 1880 to 1883
Augustus A. Bourne, 1883 to l %&5
George Peabody Wetmore, 1885 to 1887
John W. Davis. 1887-10 1888, and 1890-91
Royal C. Taft, 1888 to 1889
Herbert W. Ladd, 1889 to 1890 & 1891-92
D. Russell Brown, 1892 to 1895
Charles Warren Lippitt, 1895 to 1897
Elisha Dyer, 1897 to 1900
William Gregory, 1900 to 1902
Charles Dean Kimball, 1902 to 1903
Lucius F. C. Garvin, 1903 to 1905
George H. Utter, 1905 to 1907
James H. Higgins, 1907 to 1909
Aram J. Pothier. 1909 to
H4 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Pardon W. Stevens, 1870 to 1872
Charles R. Cutler, 1872 to 1873
Charles C. Van Zandt, 1873 to l8 75
Henry T. Sisson, 1875 to l8 77
Albert C. Howard, 1877 to 1880
Henry H. Fay, 1880 to 1883
Oscar J. Rathbun, 1883 to 1885
Lucius B. Darling, 1885 to 1887
Samuel R. Honey, 1887 to 1888
Enos Lapham, 1888 to 1889
Daniel T. Littlefield, 1889 to 1890
W. T. C. Wardwell, 1890 to 1891
Henry A. Stearns, 1891 to 1892
Melville Bull, 1892 to 1894
Edwin R. Allen, 1894 to 1897
Aram J. Pothier, 1897 to 1898
William Gregory, 1898 to 1900
Charles Dean Kimball, 1900 to 1901
George L. Shepley, 1902 to 1903
Adelard Archambault, 1903 to 1904
George H. Utter, 1904 to 1905
Frederick H. Jackson, 1905 to 1908
Ralph C. Watrous, 1908 to 1909
Arthur W. Dennis, 1909 to 1910
Zenas W. Bliss, 1910 to
Commissioners of Public Schools.
Thomas W. Bicknell,
Thomas B. Stockwell,
Walter E. Ranger.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 115
Members Elected in Grand Committee.
Rev. Daniel Leach, Frank E. McFee,
Rev. Charles J. White, Percy D. Smith,
Lucius B. Darling, E. Charles Francis,
Aram J. Pothier, John E. Kendrick,
Charles H. Fisher, M. D.
Frederick W. Tilton, George A. Littlefield,
Augustus D. Small, Lucius D. Davis,
Thomas H. Clarke, Frank E. Thompson.
Rev. Amos F. Spalding, J. Howard Manchester,
Rev. George L. Locke, D. D., George T. Baker,
Rev. W. A. Ackley.
Prof. George Washington Greene, Ezra K. Parker,
Dwight R. Adams, Samuel W. K. Allen.
Samuel H. Cross, David S. Baker, Jr.,
n6 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL FACULTY.
Dana P. Colburn, i854-Dec. 15, 1859.
Daniel Goodwin Provisional principalship conferred by
Governor and Commissioner of Public Schools.
Served from Mr. Colburn's death till Feb., 1860.
Hannah W. Goodwin Principal pro tern. Feb., 1860
till Mr. Kendall took charge.
Joshua Kendall Elected May 17, 1860 to 1865.
Arthur Sumner, i854-July, 1855.
Hannah W. Goodwin i855-Sept., 1863. Assistant till
Feb., 1860. Principal pro tem. till Mr. Kendall
came; First Assistant and later Assistant Principal.
Six months' leave of absence, 1861-62.
Emma T. Brown Sept., i855~July, 1857.
Annie F. Saunders Sept., i855-July, 1857.
Daniel Goodwin Sept., i857-Oct, 1859.
Acting principal from December, i859-February,
Ellen R. Luther November, 1859 to 1865.
Ellen J. LeGro November, 1863- November, 1864.
Prof. S. S. Greene Teacher of English, Grammar and
Analysis, December, i854-July, 1857.
Charles M. Clarke Teacher Vocal Music, December,
Robert S. Fisher Teacher Vocal Music, September, 1855-
Harriet B. Luther Conducted singing exercise each week
March 3O-July, 1858.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL FACULTY.
1871 to 1911.
James C. Greenough 1871 to 1883
Thomas B. Stockwell, Acting Principal Sept. 1883 to Jan. 1884
Thomas J. Morgan Jan. 1884 to 1889
George A. Littlefield 1889 to 1892 teacher to 1894
William E. Wilson 1892 to 1898
Fred Gowing 1898 to 1901
Charles S. Chapin 1901 to 1908
John L. Alger 1908 to
Susan C. Bancroft
Mary L. Jewett
Almira L. Hayward
Anna C. Bucklin
Lydia S. Rathbun
Ida M. Gardner
Susan C. B. Tillinghast
Louise P. Remington
Annie E. Kenyon
Mary J. Briggs
Ella M. Short
Charlotte E. Deming
Mary R. Ailing
Frances W. Lewis
Elizabeth W. Gardiner
William E. Wilson
1871 to 1877
1871 to 1878
1871 to 1872
1872 to 1905
1872 to 1874
1874 to 1875
1876 to 1880
1877 to Jan. 1879
Jan. 1879 to July 1879
1878 to 1882
1878 to 1879
1879 to '1885
1879 to 1908
1880 to 1881
1881 to 1889
1883 to 1884
1884 to 1892 see above
1885 to Jan. 1887
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Anna M. Wickes
Clara M. Colcord
Alice E. Faucher
Mabel C. Bragg
Fannie E. Woods
Emma E. Brown
George A. Littlefield
Inez L. Whipple
Hattie E. Hunt
Mary C. Dickerson
Blanche E. Hazard
Emma A. Hindley
Agnes E. Clark
Charles A. Miller
Anna B. Gallup
Harriet M. Beale
Helen L. Bliss
C. Edward Fisher
Horatio B. Knox
Isabel B. Holbrook
Marian L. Shorey
Arthur J. Jones
Valeria S. Goodenow
Lyman R. Allen
Annie J. Fairchild
Emily B. Cornish
Florence E. Griswold
Ernest E. Balcom
Jan. 1887 to July 1887
1887 to 1890
1887 to 1888
1888 to 1891, 1894 to 1901
1889 to 1890
1890 to 1894
1890 to 1891
1891 to Feb. 1904
1891 to 1899
1892 to 1894
March 1892 to 1897
1894 to Feb. 1901
1896 to 1901
1897 to 1905
1898 to 1901 also Librarian.
1899 to 1904
1899 to 1907
Feb. 1900 to June 1901
Feb. 1901 to June 1904
Feb. 1901 to June 1903
1901 to May 1902
1902 to Jan. 1907
1905 to March 1910
Jan. 1907 to June 1907
1907 to 1911
1907 to June 1908
1908 to 1909
1908 to Feb. 1909
Feb. 1909 to June 1911
Feb. 1909 to
1909 to June 1911
1909 to 1910
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Florence M. Richards
Lida B. Earhart
Joseph J. Landall
April 1910 to June 1911
Jan. 1910 to June 1911
Benjamin W. Hood
Emory P. Russell
Mrs. Ellen D. Carney
Mrs. E. S. Barry
Clara F. Robinson
Alexander H. Seaverns
Laura B. McLean
Marie S. Stillman
Charles H. Gates
Carl W. Ernst
Caroline E. Sanford
E. C. Davis
John E. Dolcet
Florence P. Salisbury
Edith L. Hill
1879 to 1893
1879 to short time, no definite record.
1879 to 1880
1890 to 1895
1895 to 1898
1898 to 1901
1901 to 1904
1900 to 1901
1873 to Jan. 1882
1873 to l8 ? 6
1882 to 1884
Emma L. Baker
Elizabeth C. Gillespie
Louise L. Green
Lucy C. King
1873 to 1878
1898 to 1902
1902 to 1908
Jan. 1903 to
1898 to 1899
1899 to 1 9 I
1901 to 1907
1907 to 1910
I2O RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Dr. Jeanie O. Arnold 1908 to
Clara E. Craig Supervisor 1898 to
Training Teacher also from 1893
Emily J. Rothwell 1898 to
Mary L. Brown 1898 to
Mary A. McArdle 1898 to
Jennie E. Aull 1898 to 1911
Phebe E. Wilbur Supervisor 1898 to Feb. 1902
then critic teacher in city training schools. Training
teacher also 1893 to 1898
Belle E. O. Bonneville 1898 to Jan. 1901
E. Gertrude Lanphear 1898 to 1903
Mary H. Gaynor 1898 to 1911
Alice W. Case 1898 to 1910
Mabel E. A. Waite Feb. 1901 to Feb. 1902
Harriet E. Roxbury Feb. 1902 to June 1909
Phebe M. Pigeon 1903 to 1905
Lina F. Bates 1905 to
Mary L. Perham 1909^0
Marion Hamilton 1910 to
Katharine H. Clarke 1898 to 1901
Elizabeth C. Baker 1898 to
Anne T. Yernon 1898 to 1907
Minnie M. Glidden 1901 to 1902
Nora At wood 1902 to Nov. 1905
Helen W. Holmes Nov. 1905 to Feb. 1907
Mildred L. Sampson 1907 to
Mary B. Sullivan, General Assistant 1909 to
Students and Graduates from 1852.
A PRIVATE NORMAL SCHOOL.
Dana P. Colburn, Arthur Sumner,
Samuel S. Greene, William Russell.
The School was held in the Hall of the Universalist Church,
corner of Weybosset and Eddy streets.
The School Opened November, 1852.
Winter and Summer Sessions.
Names of students so far as ascertained, Information as to
these or others will be gladly welcomed by Miss Ellen M.
Haskell, 381 Angell street. Providence.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Sarah Dean Providence, R. I.
*Celia Lewis Providence, R. I.
Mary Wadsworth (Fuller) Providence, R. I.
Ellen Shaw 1035 Massachusetts av., Cambridge, Mass.
Mary Logee Providence, R. I.
122 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDPBSS.
Anna F. Fielden (Saunders) Providence, R. 1.
Rebecca Sheldon Providence, R. I.
*Harriet Ware Providence, R. I.
*Martha Thurber Providence, R. I.
*Cornelia Latham Providence, R. I.
Mary Fabyan (Lewis) Providence, R. I.
*Lysander Flagg Central Falls, R. I.
*Isabel Doyle Providence, R. I.
Mary Emily Gushing Providence, R. I.
Myron M. Greene Providence, R. I.
Emma Buffinton Providence, R. I.
Ellen A. Bartlett (Draper) Central Falls, R. I.
*Pardon E. Tillinghast (Judge) Pawtucket, R. I.
Hester Scholfield (Abbott ) 98 Comstockav., Providence, R. I.
Victoria Chase Providence, R. I.
Adaline Capron Attleboro, Mass.
Elizabeth Makepeace Providence, R. I.
*Alice Hill (Hale) Providence, R. I.
Charlotte A. King (Tabor) 125 Camp st., Providence, R. I.
Elizabeth J. Cory Providence, R. I.
Maria Brownell Providence, R. I.
Mary J. Lee Providence, R. I.
Ruth A. Haskell, 68 Lloyd av., Providence, R. I.
Eliza B. Denison (Lewis), 14 Arnold st., Providence, R. I.
Lucretia Bucklin Providence, R. I.
Martha Bowen Providence, R. I.
Mary J. Godding (Miles) Providence, R. I.
Sophia Read Providence, R. I.
*Rebecca Sessions Providence, R. I.
Amanda Miles Providence, R. I.
Rebecca Armington Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 123
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Mary Wilbour Providence, R. I.
Jane Helen Tabor Providence, R. 1.
Mary Armington Providence, R. I.
Sarah Bliven (Wilbour) 86 Wood St., Providence, R. I.
*Harriet Bucklin Providence, R. I.
Matilda Cole Providence, R. 1.
Anna Potter Providence, R. 1.
Mrs. Craigin, (a widow with 3 children) . .Providence, R. I.
Laura Field Providence, R. I.
Mary Shelley Providence, R. I.
Alonzo Titcomb Providence, R. I.
Draper Smith Providence, R. I.
Amy Spencer (Tucker) Providence, R. I.
Seraphine Gardner Providence, R. I.
*Sarah Padelford Providence, R. I.
Emeline Aldrich Providence, R. I.
*Robert Fielden Providence, R. I.
One colored man Providence, R. 1.
* Deceased ; others may be.
124 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
THE RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL
OPENED AS A STATE INSTITUTION,
MAY 29, 1854.
Dana P. Colburn, Principal.
Arthur Sumner, Assistant.
First Entering Class.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Adams, Mary P. 21 Providence, R. I.
Barton, Emily L. 18 Providence, R. I.
Barton, George Thomas 22 Providence, R. I.
Buckley, Mary 20 Providence, R. I.
Brown, H. Eliza 18 Providence, R. I.
Clark, Henry 19 Pawtucket, R. I.
Cleveland, Thomas E. 18 Providence, R. I.
Colburn, Lydia D. 17 West Roxbury, Mass.
Dustin, Frances P. 22 Providence, R. 1.
Gardiner, Sarah C. 16 Providence, R. 1.
Gifford, Elizabeth C. 17 Sandwich, Mass.
Haswell, Charlotte R. 16 Providence, R. I.
Harris, Earl C 18 Providence, R. I.
Lippitt, Ann C. 17 Providence, R. I.
Nichols, Helen A. 17 Providence, R. I.
Peavey, Sarah G. 25 Providence, R. I.
Passmore, Elizabeth 16 Providence, R. I.
Palmgreen, Margaret E. 16 Providence, R. 1.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 125
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Steere, Frances M. 17 No. Providence, R. I.
Steere, Laura M. 15 No. Providence, R. I.
Smith, Adeline P. P. 16 Providence, R. I.
Sprague, Helen F. 18 Providence, R. I.
Winship, Susan J. 19 Providence, R. I.
VVestcott, Adah D. 22 Providence, R. I .
Westcott, Sarah .15 Pawtucket, R. I.
Wilbour, Emily C. 17 Pawtucket, R. I.
Yeomans, Eliza J. 22 Providence, R. I .
126 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL CATALOGUE.
From 1854 to 1865, inclusive.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Adams, David A., Jr Pottsdam, St. Lawrernce Co., N. Y.
Angell, Edmund A Providence, R.
Arnold, Denham Coventry, R.
Arnold, John Portsmouth, R.
Adams, Almira G. . . Bristol, R,
Adams, Effie Bristol, R.
Adams, Esther H Holliston, Mas .
Adams, Harriet E Manville, R.
Adams, Mary P Providence, R.
Aldrich, Mary J. Smithfield, R.
Aldrich, Sarah . Cumberland, R.
Allen, Juliett A Providence, R.
Allyn, Annie C Bristol, R.
Andrews, Ann E. Providence, R. I.
Andrews, Caroline F Providence, R. I.
Angell, Amelia N Providence, R. I.
Angell, Julia E. Providence, R. I.
Angell, Nancy M Chepachet, R. I.
Angell, Sarah E North Scituate, R. I.
Angell, Susan F Chepachet, R. I.
Anthony, Lois Portsmouth, R. I.
Anthony, Mary E Providence, R. I.
Arnold, Mary Providence, R. I.
Arnold, Sarah S Douglas, Mass.
Atwood, Sarah R Thompson, Conn.
Avery, Annie E Providence, R. I.
Ballou, Byron M Woonsocket, R. I.
Barney, Charles E. . Bristol, R. I.
Barton, George T Providence, R. I.
Briggs, Stephen A Stonington, Conn.
Brown, J. F Kingston, R. I.
Browning, Joseph L Charlestown, R. I.
Burlingam,e, William C Cumberland, R. I.
Babbitt, Mary A. Bristol, R. I.
Babcock, Austania M Providence, R. I.
Babcock, Mary R. . Charlestown, R. I.
Bailey, Mary E West Greenwich, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 127
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Baker, Almira B Pawtucket, Mass.
Baker, Electa A Providence, R. 1.
Ballou, Abby L Cumberland, R. I.
Ballou, Anna Woonsocket, R. I.
Ballou, Laura Woonsocket, R. I.
Ballou, Martha A Cumberland, R. I.
Ballou, Sarah M Keene, N. H.
Barnaby, Harriet A Providence, R. I.
Barney, Hannah M Warren, R. I.
Barrows, Amelia Pawtucket, Mass.
Bartlett, Ellen A Pawtucket, Mass.
Barton, Emily L Providence, R. I.
Battey, Mary S . Cranston, R. I.
Battey, Nancy S Burrillville, R. I.
Baxter, Augusta V Bristol, R. I.
Baxter, Minnie B Bristol, R. I.
Belcher, Lydia H Georgiaville, R. I.
Bensley, Clara E North Providence, R. I.
Bensley, Elizabeth W. Providence, R. I.
Bensley, Mary B Pawtucket, Mass.
Benson, Cornelia South Kingstown, R. I.
Bicknor, Jane R Warren, R. I.
Blake, Anna Bellingham, Mass.
Bliss, Eleanor Seekonk. Mass.
Bliss, Martha H Seekonk, Mass.
Bourn, Josephine F Attleboro, Mass.
Bourn, H. Eliza Providence, R. I.
Bowen, Fanny W South Attleboro, Mass.
Bowen, Lucy A Providence, R. I.
Brayton, Isadora Warwick, R. I.
Briggs, Elizabeth Greenville, R. I.
Brown, Addie Smithfield, R. I.
Brown, Alice Johnston, R. I.
Brown, Amy A Johnston, R. I.
Brown, Ann E Tiverton, R. I.
Brown, Elizabeth Smithfield, R. I.
Brown, Emma T. Providence, R. I.
Brown, Mary C Framingham, Mass.
Brown, Josephine T Providence, R. I.
Brown, Mary A Johnston, R. I.
Brown, Permelia U Cranston, R. I.
Brownell, Amy S Portsmouth, R. I.
128 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Brownell, Maria J. Adamsville, R. I.
Brownell, Martha F Providence, R. I.
Bryant, Annie K Providence, R. 1.
Bucklin, Amy J Pawtucket, R. I.
Buckley, Mary Providence, R. I.
Buffington, Geraldine. Warren, R. I.
Bullock, Ruth Bristol, R. I.
Burke, Theresa Providence, R. I.
Carpenter, Charles B Brookfield, Mass.
Carr, J. Foster Jamestown, R. I.
Chapman, Thomas B Westerly, R. I.
"Clark, Henry Pawtucket, R. I .
Clarke, George A Cranston, R. I .
Coggeshall, George A South Portsmouth, R. I.
Coggeshall, Peleg S South Portsmouth, R. J.
Crandall, J. E. R South Kingstown, R. I.
Crandall, William E South Kingstown, R. 1.
Calder, Eleanor S. . Providence, R. I.
Capron, Addie Providence, R. I.
Capron, Frances A Attleboro, Mass.
Capron, Sarah A Providence, R. I.
Cary, Mary E. . Cooper, Me.
Carpenter, Elizabeth B Providence, R. I.
Carpenter, Mary N Cumberland, R. I.
Chaffee, Maria A Smithfield, R. 1.
Chapin, Mary E Chicopee, Mass.
Chase, Annie C. . Portsmouth, R. I.
Chase, Elizabeth J Providence, R. I.
Chase, Harriet N Southbridge, Mass.
Chase, Mary E Providence, R. I .
Cheney, Maria A Olneyville, R. I.
Church, Amanda Charlestown, R. I.
Church, Mary E. Charlestown, R. I.
Cleveland, Frances E Providence, R. I.
Colburn, Lydia D West Roxbury, Mass.
Colby, Harriet A . . Providence, R. I.
Cole, Marietta. . . Providence, R. I.
Cole, Sarah L Warwick, R. I.
Comstock, Catharine West Wrentham, Mass.
Comstock, Ellen West Wrentham, Mass.
Comstock, Sarah. . ...... ..West Wrentham, Ma??.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 129
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Condon, Hannah S
Congdon, Martha R Cumberland, R. I.
Cook, Mary F. . Cumberland, R. I.
Cook, Samantha M Uxbridge, Mass.
Cook, Sarah Cumberland, R. I.
Cook, Hannah S . Holyoke, Mass.
Cory, Elizabeth J Providence, R. I.
Cornell, Ellen E Providence, R. I.
Corscaden, Eliza J. . Providence, R. I.
Cunliff, Mary E Sutton, Mass.
Gushing, Emily. . . Providence, R. I.
Cutting, Phebe A. . .... Smithfield, R. I.
Dawley, Edward Bristol, R. I.
Davis, Stephen G Westport, Mass.
Daggett, Hope R Bristol, R. I.
Damoth, Sarah E Providence, R. I.
Dana, Ruth A Valley Falls, R. I.
Danielson, Emily West Killingly, Conn.
Darling, Maria J Blackstone, Mass.
Darling, Evelyn C. Bristol, R. I.
Douglass, Charlotte A Fall River, R. I.
Davis, Annie E Pawtucket, R. I.
Davis, Elizabeth R Providence, R. I.
Davoll, Harriett B Fall River, R. I.
Dean, Martha W. . Providence, R. I.
Delano, Lucy M Bath, Me.
DeWolf , Elizabeth P South Kingstown, R. I.
Dorrell, Elizabeth. . . Providence, R. I.
Dustin, Frances P Providence, R. I.
Evans, Clinton O. Glocester, R. I.
Earl, Mary E. . Pascoag, R. I.
Edmonds, Anna E Providence, R. I.
Emery, Mary A Portsmouth, R. I.
Enches, Mary E Smithfield, R. I.
Essex, Maria. .............. Providence, R. I.
Essex, Susan Providence, R. I.
Evans, Abby A Providence, R. I.
Evans, Hannah R Glocester, R. I.
Evans, Sophia W Providence, R. I.
130 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Fox, Samuel D Tuf tonboro, N. H.
Farnham, Mary E North Providence, R. I.
Farnham,, Julia Smithfield, R. I.
Farnham, Mary M -Westerly, R. I.
Farnham, Juliet Smithfield, R. I.
Fenner, Esther South Scituate, R. I.
Field, Almira Providence, R. I.
Field, Eliza M. Scituate, R. I.
Fielden, Caroline C Great Falls, N. H.
Flagg, Jane I . Providence, R.
Forrest, Eliza A. . Providence, R.
Foster, Emily R Warren, R.
Foster, Laura B Providence, R.
Foster, Mary M. . Johnston, R.
Foster, Rebecca M Johnston, R.
Freeborn, Augusta H Bristol, R.
Freeborn, Ella S Providence, R. I.
Frost, Mary E Providence, R. I.
Fuller, Mary E. . South Attleboro, Mass.
Gardiner, Allen Jamestown, R. I.
Gardner, Thomas W Warwick, R. I.
Gardner, Nathan B Warren, R. I.
Gooding, Charles H Bristol, R. I.
Goodwin, Edward A Mansfield, Mass.
Gardner, Angeline Tiverton, R. I.
Gardiner, Esther P Providence, R. I.
Gardiner, Sarah E. . Providence, R. I.
Gardner, Seraphine A Providence, R. I.
Gifford, Elizabeth C Sandwich, Mass.
Gladding, Catharine M Providence, R. I.
Godfrey, Sarah T Providence, R. I.
Goodwin, Hannah W Providence, R. I.
Goodwin, Harriet L Mansfield, Mass.
Goodwin, Mary J Mansfield, Mass.
Gould, Amelia A Providence, R. I.
Gould, Catharine F Middletown, R. I.
Grant, Adeline C Bellingham, Mass.
Grant, Martha E Bellingham, Mass.
Gray, Peace C Tiverton, R. I.
Greene, Eliza Glocester, R. I.
Greene, Mary E Apponaug, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 131
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Griffin, Abbie H Charlestown, R. I.
Gruber, Frances Providence, R. I.
Guy, Martha A. . Cambridgeport, Mass.
Hale, Samuel S Olneyville, R. I.
Hambly, John B. . . Portsmouth, R. I.
Harding, Arland S Cumberland, R. I.
Harris, Earl C. Providence, R. I.
Hazard, George J South Kingstown, R. I.
Hicks, Charles R. . Tiverton, R. I.
Howard, Eli H Gayhead, Green Co., N. Y.
Hull, John K. . South Kingstown, R. I.
Hall, Martha W. Providence, R. I.
Hambly, Mary A. B Portsmouth, R. I.
Hammond, Celia L. . . Providence, R. I.
Handel, Irena A Hopkinton, R. I.
Harris, Mary C. . Providence, R. I.
Haskell, Elizabeth B Cumberland, R. I.
Hathaway, Belinda O Pawtucket, R. I.
Hay ward, Almira L. . Foxboro, Mass.
Hazard, Harriet C Westerly, R. I.
Hazard, Lydia C. . Popular Ridge, Cayuga Co., N. Y.
Helme, Harriet J Providence, R. I.
Hendrick, Mary E. . Warren, R. I.
Hendrick, Mary J Smithfield, R. I.
Heyden, Charlotte R. . Cumberland, R. I.
Hill, Clarinda E Scituate, R. I.
Hodges, Charlotte M. . Providence, R. I.
Hopkins, Elizabeth C North Foster, R. I.
Hopkins, Julia M. Providence, R. I.
Hopkins, Lucy E North Foster, R. I.
Hoswell, Charlotte R. . Providence, R. I.
Hoswell, Jennie. . Pawtucket, R. I.
Howland, Susan Providence, R I.
Hoxie, Abbie E Charlestown, R. I.
Hoxie, Fannie G. South Kingstown, R. I.
Hoxie, Mary L Charlestown, R. I.
Harriet K. Hull South Kingstown, R. L
Hyndes, Catharine Providence, R. I.
Irons, Mary T Providence, R. I.
Irwin, Amanda T. Providence, R. I.
132 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Jackson, Fannie M Newport, R. I.
Jacobs, Olive T. . Pawtucket, R. I.
Jenks, Hannah M Foster, R. I.
Jenks, Mary L. . Pawtucket, R. I.
Jones, Caroline A Cranston, R. I.
Jones, Mary W. . Newport, R. I.
Knowles, Charles F. . Wakefield, R. I.
Knowles, George H. South Kingstown, R. I.
Knowles, Horatio N Wakefield, R. I.
Keighn, Henrietta A. South Scituate, R. I.
Kellogg, Lucy. Providence, R. I.
Kempton, Elizabeth J North Fairhaven, Mass.
Kinsley, Mary C Mendon, Mass.
Knowles, Emma. South Kingstown, R. I.
Leavens, Rosamond R Providence, R. I.
Lee, Mary A. . Providence, R. I.
LeGro, Helen J Great Falls, N. H.
Lippitt, Ann C. . Providence, R. I.
Liscomb, Ellen P Bristol, R. I.
Littlefield, Abbie F. North Providence, R. I.
Luther, Caroline C Bristol, R. I.
Luther, Chlora A. North Scituate, R. I.
Luther, Ellen R Bristol, R. I.
Luther, Harriet B Bristol, R. I.
Luther, Susan J Bristol, R. I.
Lyon, Frances M West Killingly, Conn.
Lyon, Sarah A Providence, R. I.
Mason, Ambrose B Bristol, R. I.
Maxfield, Harvey Meredith, N. H.
Moore, Robert I Providence, R. I.
Morse, Gilford Sharon. Mass.
Magill, Matilda R New Hope, Penn.
Makepeace, Caroline E Attleboro, Mass.
Manchester, Abbie H Little Com,pton, R. I.
Manchester, Mary E Providence, R. I.
Manchester, Susan A Tiverton, R. I.
Martin, Ellen C Wrentham, Mass.
Martin, Hannah P Warren, R. I.
Martin, Phebe M Seekonk, Mass.
Martin, Sara E ..Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.' 133
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Martin, Sarah C Seekonk, Mass.
Mason, Esther A Pawtucket, R. I.
Mason. Marianna Pawtucket, R. I.
Mason, Sarah L Providence, R. I.
Matteson, Martha M Pawtucket, Mass.
Mathewson, Mary C Foster, R. I.
Miller, Helen Fruit Hill, R. I.
Millard, Mary E Providence, R. I.
Merrill, Lorana Westminster, Mass.
Merrill, Harriet E Great Falls, N. H.
Morse, Mary R Bristol, R. I.
Mott, Lydia R New Shoreham, R. I.
Munroe, Isadora W Bristol, R. I.
Xash, Martha S Seekonk, Mass.
Xason, Maria E Warwick, R. I.
Xeedham, Eliza W Pawtuxet, R. I.
Xeedham, Leonis M Providence, R. I.
Xewell, Harriet Woonsocket, R. I.
Xichols, Helen A Providence, R. I.
Xorris, Mary F Bristol, R. I.
X T orton, Mary P Providence, R. I.
Norwood, Catherine E Pawtucket, R. I.
Osborne, Caroline F Providence, R. I.
Peavey, Lyford G Tuftonboro', N. H.
Piper, Asa G Tuftonboro', N. H.
Piper, Levi T Tuftonboro', N. H.
Pollock, Charles C South Kingstown, R. I.
Padelford. Mary Providence, R. I.
Paine. Julia A Smithfield, R. I.
Paine, Lydia A Providence, R. I.
Paine, Minerva J Smithfield, R. I.
Paine, Susan Smithfield, R. I.
Palmer, Harriet L. D Providence, R. I.
Palmer, Patience A Providence, R. I.
Palmer, Sarah M Providence, R. I.
Palmgreen, Margaretta E Providence, R. I.
Parker, Maria F Providence, R. I.
Passmore. Elizabeth Providence, R. I.
Passmore, Louise Providence, R. I.
Patterson, Sipheantus South Scituate, R. I.
Pearce, Isabel F Bristol, R. I.
134 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Peaslee, Harriet L Haverhill, Mass.
Peavey, Sarah G Providence, R. I.
Peck, Helen L Bristol, R. I.
Peckham, Phebe A. . Smithfield, R. I.
Peckhami, Rebecca C Bristol, R. I.
Pearce, Ruby A Providence, R. I.
Perry, Sarah E North Providence, R. I.
Phillips, Alsie H Providence, R. I.
Pollard, Ermina H Providence, R. I.
Porter, Annie E Freetown, Mass.
Porter, Harriet E Providence, R. I.
Potter, Lydia Johnston, R. I.
Pratt, Cornelia B Cranston, R. I.
Rood, Charles N Cumberland, R. I.
Randall, Harriet C Providence, R. I.
Randall, Mary Providence, R. I.
Randolph, Mary A Trenton, N. J.
Rawcliffe, Sarah A Cranston, R. I.
Read, Elnora Providence, R. I.
Reid, Mary E Elmwood, R. I.
Rhodes, Ann F Providence, R. I.
Richardson, Mary T Providence, R. I.
Robinson, Ellen L Foxboro, Mass.
Scott, Henry B Cumberland, R. I.
Sherman, Abiel W Fall River, Mass.
Sherman, Moses B South Kingstown, R. I.
Skidmore, Joseph Providence, R. I.
Southwick, George E Charlton, Mass.
Sweet, Gilbert A Greenville, R. I.
Sweet, John B., Jr Bristol, R. I.
Salisbury, Eldora F Warren, R. I.
Salisbury, Susan L Warren, R. I.
Salmon, Mary Providence, R. I.
Saunders, Annie F Providence, R. I.
Sayles, Emeline A Providence, R. I.
Sayles, Laura C Providence, R. I.
Schofield, Hester Providence, R. I.
Scott, Harriet N Providence, R. I.
Selden, Mary Providence, R. I.
Shaw, Sarah Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 135
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Shepard, Maria C Bristol, R. I.
Sherburne, Alice A West Wrentham, Mass.
Sherburne, Marion L West Wrentham, Mass.
Sherman, Harriet E Pawtucket, R. I.
Sherman, Harriet S South Kingstown, R. I.
Shurtliff, Annie H Warren, R. I.
Shurtliff, Eliza F Warren, R. I.
Slocum, Emma T Cranston, R. I.
Smith, Adaline P. T Providence, R.
Smith, Eliza Providence, R.
Smith, Elmy A Cranston, R.
Smith, Harriet North Scituate, R.
Smitk, Harriet N Providence, R.
Smith, Helen M Millville, Mass.
Smith, Lois L Pawtucket, R. I.
Snow, Ellen M Providence, R. I.
Southwick, Emma Millville, Mass.
Southwick, Nancy A Millville, Mass.
Spaulding, Almira Providence, R. I.
Spencer, Lydia L Warwick, R. I.
Spencer, Sarah J Warwick, R. I.
Sprague, Helen F Providence, R. L
Sprague, Mary A Sutton, Mass.
Sprague, Sarah J Pawtucket, R. I.
Stanfield, Rachel B Pascoag, R. I.
Stanley, Delia M South Attleboro, Mass.
Stanton, Kate S Charlestown, R. I.
Stanton, Mary E Charlestown, R. I.
Steer, Frances M North Providence, R. I.
Steer, Laura North Providence, R. I.
Stevens, Margaret A Lawrence, Mass.
Stone, Anjenette Providence, R. I.
Suesman, Emma E South Providence, R. I.
Teft, Daniel E South Kingstown, R. I.
Tillinghast, Caleb A Foster, R. I.
Tillinghast, Leonard A Coventry, R. I.
Tillinghast, Pardon E West Greenwich, R. I.
Tourtellotte, Stephen West Scituate, R. I.
Tucker, Thomas T Charlestown, R. I.
Taber, Charlotte A Providence, R. I.
Taber, Fannie A Providence, R. I.
136 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Taber, Jane H Providence, R. I.
Taber, Lydia R New Bedford, Mass.
Taber, Sarah J Providence, R.
Taft, Emma A Providence, R.
Tetlow, Asenath Providence, R.
Thompson, Isabel B Bristol, R.
Tingley, Eunice A Providence, R.
Tourtellotte, Alzada West Scituate, R.
Tourtellotte, Samondess. . . Scituate, R.
Tower, Sarah N Pawtucket, R.
Tucker, Lydia W. Manville, R.
Tweedy, Clementine Providence, R.
Tyler, Harriet A Attleboro, Mass.
Weld, Henry A
Whiting, Hassam O Valley Falls, R. I.
Walden, Elizabeth F
Waldron, Hannah B Bristol, R. I.
Warren, Louise B Bristol, R. I.
Waterman, Lucy M Galena, 111.
Watson, Elizabeth P
Watson, Mary E Newport, R. I.
Weeden, Adelaide C Pawtucket, R. 1.
Westcott, Adah D
Westcott, Mary F
Westcott, Sarah E
Wmpple, Mary E
Whipple, Rosalthia A. Cumberland, R. I.
Whitf ord, Nancy A
Wilbor, Dency A Smithfield, R. I.
Wilber, Mary S Tiverton, R. I.
Wilbour, Emily E
Wilcox, Amelia E Westerly, R. 1.
Wilcox, Candace G Providence, R. I.
Willard, M. Helen Warwick, R. I.
Winsor, Emily T Providence, R. I.
Winsor, Julia A Smithfield, R. I.
Winsor, Lucretia E Greenville, R. I.
Winship, Susan J Providence, R. I.
Wood, L. Augusta Gardiner, Mass.
Yeaw, Maria E . . Scituate, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 137
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Yeomans, Eliza J Providence, R. I.
Yerrington, Annie M Providence, R. I.
Young, Mary A Smithfield, R. I.
From 1860 to 1865.
Albro, Christopher D South Portsmouth, R. I.
Arnold, Alfred B Coventry, R. I.
Arnold, George U Bristol, R. I.
Adams, Annie J Bristol, R. I.
Alexander, Sarah M Warwick, R. I.
Allen, Jane M Fiskeville, R. I.
Allen, Mary Allenton, R. I.
Anthony, Sarah M Richmond, R. I.
Bailey, Edward C Little Compton, R. I.
Barney, James M Bristol, R. I.
Bates, Benoni Coventry, R. I.
Bates, Caleb G Coventry, R. I.
Borden, A. J Fall River, R. I.
Bradford, William H
Brayman, Henry T Usquepaugh, R. I.
Burden, Frederick L North Scituate, R. I.
Butterworth, John Warren, R. I.
Barney, Eliza K East Providence, R. I.
Barney, Nancy L Bristol, R. I.
Bartlett, Addie M Burrillviile, R. I.
Baylies, Jennie M Southbridge, Mass.
Bishop, Maria L Warren, R. I.
Boss, Lizzie C. Newport, R. I.
Bourn, Myra Bristol, R. I.
Bradford, Annie W Bristol, R. I.
-Bradford, Margaret D Bristol, R. I.
Bradford, Mary E Bristol, R. I.
Briggs, Ruth A Warwick, R. I.
Brown, Annie E Providence, R. I.
Brown, Clara M East Providence, R. I.
Brownell, Sarah A Fall River, R. I.
Bucklyn, Louise Providence, R. I.
Bullock, Mary E North Rehoboth, Mass.
Burdick, Joanna Providence, R. I.
Burlingame, Ann E River Point, R. I.
Burns, Ellen Pawtucket, R. I.
Butterworth, Alary M . . Warren, R. I.
138 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Chase, William E Uxbridge, Mass.
Chipman, William M Hope Valley, R. I.
Clarke, George P Ashton, R. J.
Cook, Henry E Burrillville, R. I.
Cornell, Solomon C. North Dartmouth, Mass.
Campbell, A. Jane North Attleboro, Mass.
Campbell, Matilda North Attleboro, Mass,
Card, Harriet Charlestown, R. I.
Cargill, Lucy W Providence, R. I.
Cargill, Mary H Providence, R. I.
Carpenter, Susan A Perryville, R. I.
Chace, Emily B Middletown, R. I.
Chaffee, Jennie H Seekonk, Mass.
Church, Matilda Bristol, R. I.
Cobb, Anna E Providence, R. I.
Cobb, Mary East Providence, R. I.
Coggeshall, Augusta Bristol, R. I.
Cogswell, Nellie E Newport, R. I.
Cole, Ellen F. Bristol, R. I.
Cole, Patience Warren, R. I.
Cooke, Emma F Cumberland, R. I.
Davis, Edwin W West Killingly, Conn.
Davoll, Edwin B. Fall River, R. I.
Deming, Maria V Peoria, 111.
Dixon, Irene F Rocky Brook, R. I.
Dodge, Almedia R New Shoreham, R. I.
Dudley, Abbie G Apponaug, R. I.
Easton, William Glendale, R. I.
Easterbrooke, Maria L Bristol, R. I.
Eddy, Annie Warren, R. I.
Eddy, Mary T Warren, R. I.
Esten, Isabella C South Attleboro, Mass.
Fitz, Frank Central Falls, R. I.
Fish, Marie A Tiverton, R. I.
Follett, Mary E North Attleboro, Mass.
Franklin, Alice M Bristol, R. I.
Freeborn, Hattie Bristol, R. I.
Fry, Mary E Richmond, R. I.
Gifford, George P. Bristol, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 139
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Greene, Ellery W Bristol, R. I.
Gregory, John P Central Falls, R. I.
Gardiner, Sarah P. . .Allenton, R. I.
Gardner, Harriet F Warren, R. I.
Gilbert, Augusta M Phenix, R. I.
Goodell, Celeste M Belchertown, Mass.
Greene, Rebecca I. S Bristol, R. I.
Harrison, Peleg D Fall River, R. I.
Heath, Sarah W South Portsmouth, R. I.
Honeywell, S. Kate Bristol, R. I.
Hood, Christina Providence, R. I.
Horton, Maria A Rice City, R. I.
Horton, Mary L Rehoboth, Mass.
Horton, Sophia W North Swansey, Mass.
Howland, Sarah W Tiverton, R. I.
Inman, George B Burrillville, R. I.
Jenckes, Ellen R Mapleville, R. I.
Kenyon, Henry B Wyoming, R. I.
Knowles, Alfred H Peace Dale, R. I.
Knowles, Warren B Peace Dale, R. I.
Kenyon, Emma C Dorrville, R. I.
Kenyon. Sarah J Dorrville, R. I.
Lansing, Isaac J Swansea, Mass.
Leach, Henry M Providence, R. I.
Lewis, Benjamin T Hopkinton, R. I.
Lillibridge, Amos A Wyoming, R. I.
Lillibridge, Charles Richmond, R. I.
Lloyd, George West Killingly, Conn.
Luther, Alfred E Bristol, R. I.
Lawless, Mary B North Swansey, Mass.
Lawless, Sarah O North Swansey, Mass.
LeGro, Lizzie J Great Falls, N. H.
Lillibridge, Sarah M. . . Wyoming, R. I.
Luther, Sarah M Lonsdale, R. I.
Mason, Daniel W Bristol, R. I.
Merriam, William W Springfield, Mass.
Merrill, Moses F North Scituate, R. I.
140 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Morse, Andrew B Richmond, R. I.
Mann, Dorcas E Providence, R. I.
Mann, Emma W North Providence, R. I.
Mason, Hattie D. . Swansea, Mass.
Money, Mary E Carolina Mills, R. I.
Moore, Hannah B Exeter, R. I.
Mowry, Abbie J Mapleville, R. I.
Mowry, Carrie B Slatersville, R. I.
JNoyes, Tacy W. . . Westerly, R. I.
Norton, Rowena North Swansey, Mass.
Pearce, Edward North Swansey, Mass.
Paine, Emma M Woonsocket, R. I.
Peabody, Carrie T Newport, R. I.
Pearce, Lydia O Warwick, R. I.
Peck, Abbie M Nayatt, R. I.
Peck, Annie S Bristol, R. I.
Perry, Lydia J North Attleboro, Mass.
Phelps, Nancy P Bristol, R. T.
Pierce, Georgiana Rockville, R. I.
Pierce, Lydia A Somerset, Mass.
Pitman, Elizabeth H Bristol, R. I.
Pitman, Helen Bristol, R. I.
Potter, Emma J Mapleville, R. I.
Potter, M. Angelina Alton, R. I.
Pratt, Mary A Mansfield, Mass.
Ramsdell, Stephen M North Scituate, R. I.
Rathbun, Louisa A Richmond, R. I.
Rich, Mary E Bristol Neck, R. T.
Richmond, Julia A Wyoming, R. I.
Smith, Albert A Glocester, R. I.
Short, Clara E. . Smithfield, R. I.
Simmons, Mary E Dighton, Mass.
Slade, Annie P Bristol, R. I.
Slade, Dora P Bristol, R. T.
Smith, Hannah B Nayatt, R. T.
Smith, Jane Smithfield, R. I.
Sprague, Abbie A. F Providence, R. I.
Starkey, Josephine Bristol, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 141
XAME. " P. O. ADDRESS.
Taft, Anthon C Bristol, R. I.
Thompson, Joseph P. Bristol, R. I.
Thompson, William E Bristol, R. I.
Tilley, William J Bristol, R. I.
Turner, Abiah G Warren, R. I.
Tanner, Emily S Warwick Neck, R. I.
Tiffany, Sarah E Barrington, R. I.
Tilley, Susan E Bristol, R. I.
Vallet, James E Sprague, Conn.
Vincent, Charles G Hopkinton, R. I.
Verry, Ellen M Blackstone, Mass.
Whipple, William A Georgiaville, R. I.
Wilcox, John T. Warwick Neck, R. I.
Wilcox, Lewis T Warwick, R. I.
Wilcox, Wilson D Old Warwick, R. I.
Wright, Otis O Foster, R. I.
Wardwell, Harriet Bristol, R. I.
Weld, Julia A Providence, R. I.
Whitaker, Marietta H Providence, R. I.
Whiting, Harriett R Rehoboth, Mass.
Whiting, Louise M Franklin, Mass.
Whiting. Mary C Franklin, Mass.
Whiting, Sarah V Franklin, Mass.
Wilcox, Emily A Bristol, R. I.
Wilcox, Harriette X Old Warwick, R. I.
Wildes, Ella F Woonsocket, R. I.
Williams, Alice P Coventry, R. I.
Winsor, Ida A Johnston, R. I.
Wood, Lillie H Burrillville, R. I.
142 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
GRADUATES RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL
FIRST CLASS 23. JUNE, 1872.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Allen, Stella C Rumford, R. I.
Armington, Harriet A 1630 Broad St., Edgewood, R. I.
Arnold, Gertrude E Georgiaville, R. I.
Brown, Arthur W West Kingston, R. I.
Bucklin, R. Anna . (Lonsdale) 22 Benefit St., Providence, R. I.
Doran, Belle C. (Burrows) 93 Park Place, Pawtucket, R. I.
Freeman, Lester A 93 Comstock Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hazard, Rose E. G. (Nazel) 65 Martin St., St. Paul, Minn.
McGary, Lydia J. (Brown) 13 Willow St., Providence, R. I.
Marble, Sarah (Shedd) Morse Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Murray Lizzie N. A. (Kenney) 122 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Peck, Annie S .Redpath Lyceum Bureau, Boston, Mass.
Pitman, Julia F 6 Cranston St., Newport, R. I.
Rea, Harriet A Barrington, R. I.
Reynolds, Mercy (Bass) Windham, Conn.
Robinson, Elizabeth S 304 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Salisbury, Adele C. (Greene) ......... .89 Park Ave., Edgewood, R. I.
*Snow, Lizzie N
Swineburne, Elizabeth H 115 Pelham St., Newport, R. I.
Walker, Willard S 142 Killingly St., Providence, R. I.
Whaley, Mary A. (Goff) 903 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
*Wood, Mary (Woodruff)
SECOND CLASS 12. JANUARY, 1873.
Barnes, Irene C ( Jencks) Greenville, R. I.
Bodfish, Esther W. (Clift) Mystic, Conn.
Cooke, Emma E 68 Marshall St., Providence, R. I.
Esten, Ida L. (Manchester).... 230 Brown St., Providence, R. I.
Faxon, Charles E Nashua, N. H.
Hewitt, Harriet E. (Waite) 388 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 143
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Irons, Stephen C Chepachet, R. I.
Reynolds, Amanda E. (Irons) North Scituate, R. I., R. F. D.
*Steere, Martha C
*Tillinghast, Iva L. (Phillips)
Williams, S. Lizzie 67 Academy Ave., Providence, R. I.
THIRD CLASS 34. JUNE, 1873.
Adams, Annie J. (Sweet) 25 Summer St., Hyde Park, Mass.
Alverson, Eleanora M. (Chaffee)
Barber, Elizabeth A 132 Brownell St., Providence, R. I.
Beane, Elsie A. (Pierce) Alverson Ave., Providence, R. I.
Bowen, Helen N. (James) 80 Carpenter St., Providence, R. I.
Briggs, Lidora E Attleboro, Mass.
Chase, Anna P. (Mowry) Box 224, Manville, R. I.
Child, Nellie M. (Vaughn) Warren, R. I.
Clark, Belle (White) Oakland, R. I.
*Cole, Martha D. (Hazard)
Conant, Carrie M. (Foss) 249 Highland Ave., Somerville, Mass.
Drown, Louise F Box 765, Warren, R. I.
Harden, Emily J. (Peckham) Newport, R. I.
Hazard, Ella V. (Newell) 40 Washington St., Central Falls, R. I.
Hornby, Annie M. (Hodges), Meadow and South Sts., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hussey, Emma P 3 Gould's Place, Providence, R. I.
Kenyon, Emma F. ( Crandall) Westerly, R. I.
Livesey, Mary D. (Perry) 60 Exchange St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Paine, Elizabeth C. (Quimby) Lyndon, Vt.
Potter, Minnie P. (Hicks) Bristol Ferry, R. I.
*Pratt, Lizzie F
Sherman, Lizzie C. (Kilburn) 264 County St., New Bedford, Mass.
Simmons, Hattie B 350 High St., Central Falls, R. I.
Sisson, Alice M. (Howland) . Hope, R. I.
Snow, Sophie P. (Knight) 297 Elmwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
*Steere, Helen M
*Stone, Ellen (Bates) . .
*Sutton, Emma F. (Harden)
*Swift, Clara L
Thornton, Ella M. (Remington) West Wickford, R. I.
*Tompkins, Eleanor L. (Walker)
144 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
White, Emma H 120 Forest St., Winchester, Mass.
Wood, Carrie A 10 Constitution St., Providence, R. 1.
Wood, Sarah E. (Kent) East Providence, R. I.
FOURTH CLASS 23. JANUARY, 1874.
*Ballou, Desire F. (Murray)
*Booth, Sarah J
Case, Mattie Portland, Oregon.
Church, Helen A. (Jones) Seely, Kansas.
Clarke, Minnie L. (Church) Warren, R.
Collins, Amy F 221 Smith St., Providence, R.
Dodge, Harriet J. (Alers) 28 Boston St., East Providence, R.
Enches, Alice G. (Vose) 610 Park Ave., Woonsocket, R.
Goff, Cornelia M 120 Williams Ave., East Providence, R.
Griswold, Fannie (Case) 95 Grove Ave., East Providence, R.
Hayward, S. Emma (Appleton) 186 Transit St., Providence, R.
Irons, Ida R. (Phillips) Davisville, R. F. D., R.
Kiernan, Mary E. (Wilson, Jr.) Washington, D. C.
*Mason, Ada E
*Mowry, S. Nellie (Mowry)
*Murray, M. Addie
Perry, H. Emma (Rounds) R. F. D. 1, Attleboro, Mass.
Pitcher, Frances I. (Parker) Kenesau, Nebraska.
Place, Cora E. (Taber) Auburn, Placer County, Cal.
Tinkler, Rosa H. (Chase) 76 Sorrento St., Providence, R. I.
White, Rebecca H. (Chace) 56 Glenham St., Providence, R. I.
Winsor, Ellen F. (Smith) Oak Knoll Farm, Woonsocket, R. I.
FIFTH CLASS 15. JUNE, 1874.
Angell, Orra A Greenville, R. I.
Clarke, M. Belle (Pease) 3 Kneeland St., Maiden, Mass.
Durf ee, Lydia S 26 Portland St., Providence, R. I.
Eaton, Mary E Greeley, Col.
Gardner, Ida M 14 Larch St., Providence, R. I.
Huling, Susan E. (Beeman) 25 Harrison Ave., Taunton, Mass.
Hull, Clara L. (Leland) 683 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Kenyon, Annie E. (Perce) 129 Cypress St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 145
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Kerr, Jessie (Cross)
*Phillips, O. Lillis (Dean)
Rathbun, Lydia S. (Tilley) 61 Oak St., Hyde Park, Mass.
Taylor, Elia S. (Smith) Nayatt, R. I.
Tilley, Mary S 7 Mann Ave., Newport, R. I.
Thompson, Alice E. (Higbee) Newport, R. I.
SIXTH CLASS 19. JANUARY, 1875.
Aborn, Louise L. (Peck) 113 Waterman St., Providence, R. I.
Alexander, Stella M. (Wilcox) 181 Angell St., Providence, R. I.
Aylesworth, Frances W 10 Warner St., Newport, R. I.
Booth, Lucy ( Burrows
*Gardiner, Madeline E. (Aylesworth)
Griswold, Clara (Sampson) 95 Grove Ave., East Providence, R. I.
*Hagan, Emmagene A
*Kenyon, Ida M
Marble, Harriet J. (Mowry) 40 Highland Ave., Fitchburg, Mass.
Manchester, Mary C. (Winslow) 50 Elton St., Providence, R. I.
Mowry, Lucie P. (Sunderland) East Providence, R. L
McNaughton, Lilly 60 Plenty St., Providence, R. I.
Newell, M. Estelle 42 Summit St., Central Falls, R. L
Saunders, Ella C. (Higgins) . . . .1992 Milwaukee Ave., St. Paul, Minn.
Sprague, Lydia C. (Sayles) Uxbridge, Mass.
*Troop, Edith A
Waterman, Susan E. (Handy) Manville, R. I.
Weeks, Clara S. (Shaw) Sherburne Farm, Mountainville, N. Y.
Williams, Ida R. (Brown) ,
SEVENTH CLASS 14. JUNE, 1875.
Brown, Sarah W. A Box 218, Newport, R. I.
Cady, Mary K. (Witcher) 598 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Dennis, Benjamin L 884 Broad St., Providence, R. L
Freeman, Sarah E. (Carpenter) 55 High St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Gardiner, Carrie P 35 Wesleyan Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hartshorn. Annie (Tillinghast) 99 Adelaide Ave., Providence, R. I.
Horton, Sarah L. (Williams) 50 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Patterson, Ernestine 198 East St., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Pearce, Ida L. (Crawford)
146 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Remington, Carrie C
Theil, Mary L. (Perkins) 212 Power St., Providence, R. I.
Tyler, Nabbia E. (Kennedy) Moosup Valley, Conn.
White, Viola M Gorham, Me.
Whitehead, Martha A. (Smith) 20 Vine St., East Providence, R. I.
EIGHTH CLASS 10. JANUARY, 1876.
Church, Carrie P 206 S St., N. E., Washington, D. C.
Cook, Alice A 76 Hamlet Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Griswold, Inez ( Chaff ee) East Providence, R. I.
Horton, Victor F 40 Gilmore St., Providence, R. I.
Luft, Wilhelmina A. (Housenstein) . .120 Peace St., Providence, R. I.
Magnus, Anna C 39 Dartmouth Ave., Providence, R. I.
Noonan, Ellen T. (McGuinness) 131 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
*Rhodes, Cornelia H. V
Taft, M. Ella (Brownell) 602 Tucker St., Fall River, Mass.
NINTH CLASS 10. JUNE, 1876.
Aldrich, Genevieve E. (Wilson) Millville, Mass.
Briggs, Helen L. (Vreeland) 517 West 70th St., Englewood, 111.
*Esten, Mrs. Rhoda A
Fraser, Mary A. (Percival) 292 Sheffield Ave., Chicago, 111.
Gardiner, Ida E. (Meader) 14 White St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Mowry, Eliza A. (Bliven) R. F. D., Brooklyn, Conn.
Macomber, Alice J Westerly, R. I.
Richardson, Mary J 38 Phenix Ave., Cranston, R. I.
*Stone, Carrie I. (Hall)
Williams, Betsey A 2079 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
TENTH CLASS 8. JANUARY, 1877.
Brown, Phillip A Middletown, Newport, R. I.
Greene, Mary A 121 Benevolent St., Providence, R. I.
Kelley, Solon C Laurel St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Maine, Susan F. (Silver) 66 North Walnut St., East Orange, N. J.
Roper, Loretta J. (Farnham) 132 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
*Schaeffer, Annie B
Turner, Em-ma N. F. (Edwards) Peace Dale, R. I,
Vaughn, Caroline A.. 77 Sycamore St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 147
XAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
ELEVENTH CLASS 11. JUNE, 1877.
Brady, Ellen M. (McCabe) 68 Sayles Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Campbell, Annie L, (Whipple)
Farrell, Catherine M. (Monahan),
223 Wickenden St., Providence, R. I.
*Freeman, Phila F. ( Monroe)
French, Isabel C Wakefield, R. I.
*Kent, Ida C
Xoyes. Abbie C 70 South Main St., Providence, R. I.
Paine, Harriet B. (Wheeler) 100 Market St., Campello, Mass.
*Remington, Louise P
Shippee, Elmer W 24 Spring St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Vedder. Susan M. (Koerner) Auburn, R. I.
TWELFTH CLASS 13. JANUARY, 1878.
Allen, Grace G. (Nealy) 27 Cabot St., Providence, R. I.
Bates, Idella F Oaklawn, R. I.
Cheever, Helen N. (Morris) 264 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.
Danforth, Ella S 11 Loring St., Lowell, Mass.
Goddard, Estella M. (Waters) Auburn, R. I.
Hall, Corbelle (Judkins) East Providence Centre, R. I.
James, Emma E. (Bates) West Greenwich Centre, R. I.
Miller. Mary C
Xoyes, Edwin A East Greenwich, R. I.
Olmstead, Elmina S 189 Wayland Ave., Providence, R. I.
Phillips. Earnest W Cowesett, R. I.
Roberts, Alice L. (Byrnes) 67 Kenyon St., Providence, R. I.
Thompson, Elizabeth M. (Wheelock) North Attleboro, Mass.
THIRTEENTH CLASS 7. JUNE, 1878.
Barnes, Berta E. (Bigelow) Blackstone, Mass.
Briggs, Mary J. (Hoxie, Jr.) Quonocontaug, R. I.
Kent, Sophie B 834 Thirteenth St., Washington, D. C.
*Porter. Esther J. A
*Sheldon, Imogene E. (Rodman)
Whipple, Hattie E. (Wheeler) 48 Glenham St., Providence, R. T.
Wood. Leona M Hillsboro Upper Valley, N. H.
148 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
FOURTEENTH CLASS 10. JANUARY, 1879.
Blackburn, Ella 1349 Eddy St., Providence, R. I.
*Collins, Marianna (Clark)
Harrington, Ida S. (Johnson) 34 Behnont Ave., Providence, R. I.
Horton, S. Jennie (Lawder) 37 Avon St., Waken" eld, Mass.
Lawton, Martha S. (Clarke) Phenix, R. I.
*Lent, Laura C. (Carpenter)
Peterson, M. Louise .
Smith, Mary F. (Viets) West Acton, Mass.
Wells, Ida L. (James) 290 Vermont Ave., Providence, R. I.
Whiting, Elmira E 23 Grove St., Pawtucket, R. I.
FIFTEENTH CLASS 15. JUNE, 1879.
Allen, Eva B. (Madison) East Greenwich, R. F. D. 1, R. I.
Beane, Lucy N 10 Hammond St., Providence, R. I.
Case, Sarah E 312 Oak St., Portland, Oregon.
Coggeshall, Abby B. (Stevens) El Paso, Texas.
Cowell, Hattie P. (Holt) 146 Sheldon St., Pawtuxet, R. I.
Farrell, Anna T 405 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Holmes, Ida J 92 Magazine St., Cambridge, Mass.
Hopkins, Martha 203 West Springfield St., Boston, Mass.
Hall, George P 408 Union St., Arlington, R. I.
Kenyon Irene (Browning) 39 Underwood St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Locke, Alice E. (Park) 611 Gilman St., Palo Alto, Cal.
*McCloskey, Mary G. (Hayes)
Moffitt, Flora J Lowell, Mass.
Short, Ella M. (Barrett) Jackson College, Jackson, Miss.
Silone, Josephine A. (Yates) 2122 Tracy Ave., Kansas City, Mo.
SIXTEENTH CLASS 8. JANUARY, 1880.
Bryant, Ursula B. (Kelley)
Campbell, Annie E 138 Brownell St., Providence, R. I.
Day, Abbie D. (Curtiss) Harrison, Me.
*Eastwood, Alice J. ( Sawyer)
Hicks, Edward R. Bristol Ferry, R. I.
*Pearce, Henry A
Taylor, A. Florence (Andem),
42 Edgewood St., Roxbury Dist., Boston, Mass.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 149
XAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
SEVENTEENTH CLASS 11. JUNE, 1880.
Colgan, Margaret 1. (Hill) 122 Farmington Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gardiner, Elizabeth W Warren, R. I.
Gilbert, William H 1605 Chapel St., New Haven, Conn.
Graham, Alice D 99 North Main St., Springfield, Mass.
*Jones, Martha D
*Kelly, Manly S
*Malkin, Nellie M
McEntee, Mary A. (de Chantal) Mt. de Sales, Cantonsville, Md.
*Phillips, Elizabeth K
Smith, C. Winthrop Reading, Mass.
Wood, Angeline H. (Arnold) Touisset, Mass.
EIGHTEENTH CLASS 10. JANUARY, 1881.
Alexander, Nellie F. (Wilcox) 89 Messer St, Providence, R. I.
Bushee, Rachel L. 5 Second St., Attleboro, Mass.
Gray, Ida J. (Woodard) Mapleville, R. I.
Heath, Florence N. (Church) Barrington Centre, R. I.
Jollie, Lillian N. (Thacher) 21 Garden St., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Linton, Jennie A. (McAuliffe)
Moore, Josephine G 1639 Pearl St., Denver, Col.
Peace, Henrietta (Chase) Prudence Island, R. I.
Wellman. Mrs. Almira R. (Sampson) 34 Center St., Putnam, Conn.
White, Kate A 3757 Forest Ave., Chicago, 111.
NINETEENTH CLASS 8. JUNE, 1881.
Ames, Julia P. (Fuller) 79 Charles Field St., Providence, R. I.
Frye, Emma 383 Jackson St., Willimantic, Conn.
Gage, Ellen 1 85 Waverly St., Providence, R. I.
Gorman, Eliza F 76 Beaufort St., Providence, R. I.
*Lewis. S. Josephine
Read, Emma F 75 Wood St., Providence, R. I.
*Scribner, W r illis S
\Vright. Lola R. (Miller) 67 Keene St., Providence, R. I.
TWENTIETH CLASS 14. JANUARY, 1882.
Angell, Emma A. (Hawkins) 618 Smith St., Providence, R. I.
Barker, Mabel A. (Mason) 46 Arch St., Providence, R. I.
Chandler. Grace D 70 Montello St., Roslindale, Mass.
150 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Cowell, Myra E Greenville, R. I.
*Cornell, Mary A. (Darrah)
Cirmmings, Ada B 311 Park St., Attleboro, Mass.
Farrell, Emma F 465 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Hall, Hannah A. (Hopkins) Summit, R. I.
Hopkins, Harriet R 77 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hunt, C. Estelle (Mathewson) 2 Putnam Place, Roxbury, Mass.
Luther, Ella F. (Allen) 242 South Main St., Warren, R. I.
Mason, Elizabeth W Warren, R. I.
*Peckham, Alice M. (Gardiner)
Wightman, J. Lewis 245 Nut Ave., Maiden, Mass.
TWENTY-FIRST CLASS 9. JUNE, 1882.
*Adams, Harriet E
Bailey, John H., Jr Box 290, Bristol, R. I.
*Barber, Stillman H. G
*Boss, Lucy A
Brockway, Blanche (Chapman) 95 Atwells Ave., Providence, R. I.
Durfee, Martha B. (Harris). .345 Waterman Ave., E. Providence, R. I.
Fowler, Frances H 364 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gould, Orlando A. (Everett) Franklin, Mass.
Pond, Ellen H. A. (Smith) . .1010 y 2 Guerrero St., San Francisco, Cal.
TWENTY-SECOND CLASS 11. JANUARY, 1883.
*Baker, Clara L
Baton, Hannah A Box 85, East Greenwich, R. I.
*Carpenter, Hettie P. (Morse)
Harlow, Chauncey P..S. E. Cor. 12th and Race Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.
Ide, Edith A. (Whittaker) . .625 Taunton Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Mary B. (Woodward) 2703 Camp St., New Orleans, La.
Lawson, Mary A 54 Hudson St., Dover, N. J.
Lord, Georgietta F. (Kurd). 1297 Narragansett Blvd., Edgewood, R. I.
Martin, Abbie M. (Turner) 429 Madison St., Vandalia, 111.
*Saunders, Frederick H .
Tarbox, Effie L. (Cargill) Abbott Run, R. I.
TWENTY-THIRD CLASS 8. JUNE, 1883.
Armstrong, Josephine (Wilcox) . .233 Worcester Block, Portland, Ore.
Clemence, Mary A 475 Greenville Ave., Johnston, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 151
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Fleming, Elizabeth H. (Tracy) ... .44 Hawes St., Central Falls, R. I.
Jeffers, Jennie 22 Sterry St., Pawtucket, R. I.
McMaster, Geneva (Deaett) 100 Russell Ave., E. Providence, R. I.
Stephens, Weltha A. (Buckingham) Seattle, Washington.
Thomas, Lena A. ( Whittemore) North Attleboro, Mass.
Winslow, Julia E. Waterville, Me.
TWENTY-FOURTH CLASS 9. JANUARY, 1884.
Carey, Mary T. S 129 Pine St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Clemence, Ida M 475 Greenville Ave., Johnston, R. I.
*Fyffe, Maggie S
Gardner, Gertrude L. 420 Meridian St., East Boston, Mass.
Howard, Walter L Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands.
Hoxie, Sarah R. F. D. 1, Westerly, R. I.
Joslin, Eudora E. 290 Friendship St., Providence, R. I.
Mason, Martha E Warren, R I.
Straight, Hattie E. (Campbell) .158 Warren Ave., E. Providence, R. I.
TWENTY-FIFTH CLASS 11. JUNE, 1884.
Barbour, Nellie F. (Jenks) Ashton, R. I.
Beard, Minnie 38 Blackstone St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Brainard, Eva E. (Taft) Kennett Square, Pa.
Dewsnap, Jane 598 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Farrell, Elizabeth J. A 49 Trask St., Providence, R. I.
Gorman, Annie L 62 Princeton Ave., Providence, R. I.
*King, Annie M
Nichols, Angie E Summit, R. I.
Osborne, Mary G Warren, R. I.
Spencer, George Wm., Jr
*Wheelock, Aurilla C
TWENTY- SIXTH CLASS 6. JANUARY, 1885.
Boss, Caroline North Scituate, R. I.
Cunningham, Ida 67 Dorchester Ave., Providence, R. I.
Frost, Ida L. (Stenhouse) South Attleboro, Mass.
Higgins, Minnie B
Hindley, Clarissa A. (Tomlinson) 32 Irving St., Worcester, Mass.
Scholefield, C. Howard 21 Platt St., Albion, N. Y.
152 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
TWENTY- SEVENTH CLASS 12. JUNE, 1885.
Barker, Ida Alice (Barney) Barrington Centre, R. I
Butler, Margaret Genevieve 33 Gooding St., Pawtucket, R. I
McLoughlin, Mary Ellen 107 Washington St., Central Falls, R. I
Phetteplace, Estella Jenckes. . . .316 South Main St., Woonsocket, R. I
Southwick, Mary Elsie (Sprague) 80 Cottage St., Pawtucket, R. I
Tabor, Walter Holman 24 Bracken St., Arlington, R. I
Tanner, Corrie Usher Champion St., Fruitvale, Cal
Thomas, Mary Etta 56 Webster Ave., Providence, R.
Waterman, Elsie Carpenter 340 Broadway, Pawtucket, R.
Westcott, Jennie Marie Riverpoint, R.
Whipple, Cora Lepha (Wood) Harris ville, R.
Young, Susanna (Cushing) 55 Waterman St., Providence, R.
TWENTY-EIGHTH CLASS 13. JANUARY, 1886.
Alexander, Emma Augusta (Downey).. 6 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Angell, Ruth Persia (Gould) 3 West River St., Providence, R. I.
*Barbour, Edna Louise
Battye, Etta Anna (Osborne) 35 Greene St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Bo wen, Amy Frances 25 Second St., East Providence, R. I.
*Brown, Emma Elizabeth
Cushing, Nora Barney (Nicholson),
Edgemoorness, Stornoway, Scotland.
D'Arcy, Elizabeth Josephine 22 Moore St., Providence, R. I.
Estes, Susie Rebecca (McCulloch) 15 Greene St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Haskell, Imogene Frances (Staples) . .21 Sackett St., Providence, R. I.
*Tucker, Calvin Dighton
Whitford, Ruth Brown (Bowen) Washington, R. I.
Wright, Ada Frances (Houston) Broad St., Charleston, W. Va.
TWENTY-NINTH CLASS 12. JUNE, 1886.
Crane, Annie Genevieve 125 Abbott St., Providence, R. I.
Darrah, Annie Louise 78 Congdon St., Providence, R. I.
Estes, Clarissa Sophia (Watjen) Box 212, Warren, R. I.
Fitch, Adelaide Tiffany (Willison) Tiverton, R. I.
Johnston, Emily Marie 77 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Lovett, Carrie Marie
Marshall, Etta Jane
Miller, Edith Sybil (Johnson) 17 Charles St., Pawtucket R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 153
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Roe, Margreita Geraldine (Scales),
740 Washington St., Dorchester, Mass.
Udell, Annie Elizabeth 49 Abbott St., Providence, R. I.
Williams, Alice Amelia 212 Providence St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Worcester, May Alice (Johnson) Suncook, New Hampshire.
THIRTIETH CLASS 12. JANUARY, 1887.
Baker, Alice Maud 151 Beacon Ave., Providence, R. I.
Carpenter, Mary Lovina R. F. D. No. 2, Rehoboth, Mass.
*Casey, Mary Elizabeth
Cavanaugh, Catherine Elizabeth Valley Falls, R. I.
Felt, May Lawrence (Ferris) Mather School, Beaufort, S. C
Hanrahan, Kate Anneta. Box 172, Warren, R. I.
Hayward. Mary Elizabeth (Gilbert) 68 Doane St., Cranston, R. I.
Kennedy, Jane Olivia 183 Pearl St., Providence, R. I.
Livsey, Annie Mary Compton, R. -I.
Manning, Harriet Elliot (Knight),
1503 Mondawmin Ave., Baltimore, Md.
McCusker, Margaret Jane Albany, N. Y.
McXale. Mary Bristol, R I.
THIRTY-FIRST CLASS 27. JULY, 1887.
Armstrong, Flora Lillian North Attleboro, Mass
Brown, Annie Snow Barrington, R. I.
Cavanaugh, Margaret Maria Valley Falls, R. I.
Church, Claudia Herbert (Hathaway), 12 Slocum St., Providence, R. I.
*Cook, Anna Louise (Gardiner)
Cook, Mabel Gertrude (Tabor) 24 Bracken St., Arlington, R. I.
Cushman. Franklin Richmond 19 Bellevue Ave., Providence, R. I.
Davison, May Ella 72 Prospect St., Willimantic, Conn.
Doran, Katharine Frances 85 Power St., Providence, R. I.
Dow, Minnie Frances (Chased 120 Pitman St., Providence, R. I.
Haskell, Oscar Ellsworth Woonsocket, R. I.
Hunt, Louise Linda Worcester, Mass.
Kelly, Sarah Ellen .123 Manning St., Providence, R. I.
Kenyon, Florence Ruth 180 Lockwood St., Providence, R. I.
King. Emma Alice Howard, R. I.
Matteson, Susan Adeline 170 Garden St., Auburn, R. I.
Morris. Phebe Elizabeth 957 North Main St., Providence, R. I.
154 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Mugan, Mary Anne Stanislaus 41 Trask St., Providence, R. I.
Nickerson, Stella Freeman (Peterson),
18 Young Orchard Ave., Providence, R. I.
Olney, Mary Elizabeth 138 Smithfield Road, Providence, R. I.
Randall, Annie Congdon (Childs) . .263 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Ryan, Elizabeth Agnes (Sullivan) ; Hartford, Conn.
*Sherman, Clara Etta (Lee)
Tucker, Jenny Esther ( Baker) El Monte, Cal.
Waite, Mabel Eunice Alice (O'Neil).lOS Ontario St., Providence, R. I.
Westcott, Agnes Shaw (Swinton) 816 Sixth Ave., Seattle, Wash.
Yeaw, Laura Stanley Hope Valley, R. I.
THIRTY- SECOND CLASS 11. JANUARY, 1888.
Austin, Helen Maria Taunton, Mass.
Battye, Eva Edna 23 Greene St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Birse, Willianna 26 Bennington St., Quincy, Mass.
Cobb, Nellie Augusta (Richards) ... .264 Dudley St., Providence, R. I.
Crumley, Matilda Lonsdale, R. I.
Hamlet, Bertha Abbie Woonsocket, R. I.
Harrington, Elizabeth Theresa East Providence, R. I.
Robertson, Mary Sproat (Loud).. 43 Whitfield St., Dorchester, Mass.
Sullivan, Mary Elizabeth 60 Glenhami St., Providence, R. I.
Tifft, Belle Josephine 7 Lee St., Somerville, Mass.
Whipple, Ellen Maria ( Angell) Box 36, Ashton, R. I.
THIRTY-THIRD CLASS 14. JUNE, 1888.
Adams, Annie L. V Warren, R. I.
Butler, Agnes Jane Morristown, Florida.
Drew, Helen Maria (Moore) Strafford, Vt.
Dronsfield, Edith (Hopkins) 141 Temple St., Fredonia, N. Y.
Eldridge, Annie Elizabeth (Sheldon) Phenix, R. I,
Fancher, Alice Emma (Peckham) . .85 Waterman St., Providence, R. I.
Gordon, Susie Lavina North Attleboro, Mass.
Grinnell, Annie Florence Tiverton, R. I.
Jencks, Beta Mary (Fairbanks) Pacific St., Central Falls, R. I.
King, George Whipple 2 Magnolia Ave., Holyoke, Mass.
Smith, Alice E. (Smithson) 123 Fourth Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Staples, George Henry 648 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Strater, Elizabeth Augusta 174 Oxford St., Providence, R. I
Virgin, Ellen Lavina 25 Preston St., Providence, R. I
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 155
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
THIRTY-FOURTH CLASS 16. JANUARY, 1889.
Allin, Mary Milton (Black) Warren, R. 1.
Ball, Irving Oscar Hotel Hamilton, Washington, D. C
Bennett, Catherine DeSayles 114 High St., Westerly, R. I.
Bradford, Bertha Louise 567 South Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Greene, Annie Lavina (Brown) Harmony, R. I.
Hurley, Dora Jane (Black) 207 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Emma Lucy (Appleby) . .132 Stanwood St., Providence, R. I.
Larry, Edith White (Lee).... 40 East Manning St., Providence, R. I.
Mowry, Afobie Harris 179 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Mowry, Jesse B Chepachet, R. I.
Xisbet, Emma 49 George St., Providence, R. I.
*Phelps, Mary Matilda (Webster)
*Remington, Mary Ann
Saunders, Martha Estella (Ring).... 2 Magnolia Ave., Holyoke, Mass.
Wheaton, Laura Antoinette (Ackley) 534 47th St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Wilson, Ella Jane (Atchison) Slatersville, R. I.
THIRTY-FIFTH CLASS 8. JUNE, 1889.
Boyden, Lillia May (Keach) Box 103, Greenville, R. I.
Bragg, Mabel Caroline. Braggville, Mass.
Gifford, Agnes Lydia 402 East 50th St., New York, N. Y.
Johnson, Jennie Hamilton 168 Walnut St., East Providence, R. I.
Kindelan, Mary Alice 270 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
*Kirby, Ella Margaret
Mason, Ada Annie (Abele) Harberth, Pa.
White, Nellie Christina (Hooker) 17 Park St, Barre, Vt,
THIRTY-SIXTH CLASS 18. JANUARY 1890.
Crowell, Carrie Jones 68 Laura St., Providence, R. I.
Davis, Mary Emily (Woolley) 157 Eugenie St., Chicago, 111.
*Dea, Isabella Wylie (Ashmore)
Dwyer, Katharine Maria 22 East St., Providence, R. I.
Ellis, Jennie Lois 9 Nickerson St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Harry, Annie Pettaconsett, R. I,
Hindley, Emma (Pennoyer) 7 College St., Halifax, N. S., Canada.
*Hines, Anna Clotilda (Smith)
Hines, Margaret (McGunagle Valley Falls, R. I.
Kelleher, Charlotte Louise (Murray). 283 George St., Providence, R. I.
156 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Kendall, Flora Mabel (Niven).120 Rochambeau Av., Providence, R. I.
Morgan, Ida Anna 2270 Pawtucket Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Nuss, Mary Margaret Harrison Ave., Newport, R. I.
*Owen, Katherine Theresa
Povey, Adelina Sarah 225 Connecticut Ave., New London, Conn.
Sherman, Ruth Ella Kingston, R. I.
*Sleeper, Georgie Inez
Whipple, Inez Luanne (Wilder). 72 Dryads Green, Northampton, Mass.
THIRTY- SEVENTH CLASS 19. JUNE, 1890.
Almy, Valentine Auburn, R. I.
Boles, Agnes 184 Fountain St., Pawtucket, R. I,
Butler, Ella Tower Marshfield, Coos Co., Oregon.
Cullen, Bridget Lauretta Berkeley, R. I.
Cullen, Sarah Louise 87 Gooding St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Douglas, Editha Simmons (Hodges),
136 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
Earle, Ruth Cook 19 Clarke Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Fisher, Lizzie Isabel 160 Bath St., Providence, R. I,
Geary, Mary Josephine 162 Orms St., Providence, R. I,
Healey, Sarah Jane Elizabeth 224 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hurley, M. Lila 36 East George St., Providence, R. I.
Lincoln, Minerva (Haskell) 100 Greenwood St., Auburn, R. I.
*Maxwell, Luthera (Tiffany)
Miett, Mary Matilda 75 Lenox Ave., East Orange, N. J.
Murr, Minnie Amanda (Christie), 121 S. Catherine St., La Grange, 111.
Niles, Minnie Estelle 108 Evergreen St., Providence, R. I.
O'Connor, Josephine (McCabe) Glendale, R. I.
Smith, Bertha Burgess Barrington, R. I.
Tillinghast, Mary Isabelle 288 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I,
THIRTY-EIGHTH CLASS 13. JANUARY, 1891.
Bellows, Annie Tower R. F. D., Manville, R. I.
Bellows, Carrie Maria R. F. D., Manville, R. I.
*Brown, Elizabeth (Heath)
Edwards, Sarah Bay (Brown) Morse Ave. Westboro, Mass,
Fletcher, Sarah 158 Pearl St., Providence, R. I.
Gray, Lizzie Thomas Tiverton, R. I.
Humphrey, Josie Nelson (Williams) New London, N. Y.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 157
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Jenkins, Emma Frances 89 Gainsborough St, Boston, Mass.
Matteson, Anna Stanton R. F. D., Saunderstown, R. I.
Matteson, Hortense Allen (Booth).. 3 Lake Place, New Haven, Conn.
Maxwell, Mabel Everett Warren, R. I.
McAvoy, Mary Ellen 9 Walnut St., Westerly, R. I.
*Tinkham, Fannie Rose (Marble)
THIRTY-NINTH CLASS 11. JUNE, 1891.
Barton, Emma Frances Box 102, Warren, R. I,
Briggs, Nellie Emma 147 Sycamore St., Winter Hill, Mass.
Carpenter, Abbie Estelle (Hill) 199 Park St., Attleboro, Mass
Cole, Hattie Leavitt 72 Prospect St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Esten, Cora Jeanette (Gory) Ill Fountain St., Providence, R. I.
Hilton, Henrietta Colbeck (Broadbent),
321 Providence St., Woonsocket, R.
* Peterson, Matilda East Providence Centre, R.
Todsen, Sarah Jane 11 Ninth St., Fall River, Mas .
Turner, Bertha Maria 181 Pleasant St., Providence, R.
Williams, Ruth Mabel (Hill) Phenix, R.
Gardiner, Cora Mabel (Manton), 186 Waterman St., Providence. R.
FORTIETH CLASS 15. JANUARY, 1892.
Bullock, Sarah Jane 208 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Capron, Maude Estelle 147 Tremont St., Ansonia, Conn.
Cawley, Anna Gertrude 198 Juniper St., East Providence, R. I.
Cole, Roby Anna (Welch) 15 George St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Deering, Jeanne M. Maria Riverpoint, R. I.
Grant, Grace Maud 7 Star St, Pawtucket, R. I.
Hunt, Amanda R. F. D. No. 2, Woonsocket, R. I.
Jilson, Elizabeth Alvira (Mealey) Holtville, Cal.
Murphy, Ellen Nora Irene- -43 Montgomery Ave., Providence, R. I.
Reynolds, Helen Alphonsine- . - 61 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Smith, Annie Peckham (Congdon) Box 132, Newport, R. I.
Strater, Josephine M. Benedict (Mullen),
309 Oxford St., Providence, R. I.
Tiffany, Jessie Goodwin 17 Morris St., Morristown, N. J.
Wiliston, Edith Holmes 103 Whitmarsh St., Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Evelyn Olive (Bullen) Hingham, Mass.
158 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
FORTY- FIRST CLASS 16. JUNE, 1892.
Baker, Annie Jane (Trull) Kerwin, Kansas.
Baker, Maude Louise (Mowry)..R. F. D. No. 2, N. Smithfield, R. I.
Cawley, Mary Louise 198 Juniper St., East Providence, R. I.
Child, Bertha Elida 182 Clifford St., Providence, R. I.
Fales, Alice Morse (Warner) Napanee, Ontario.
Hammond, Ellen Underwood (Bivins),
764 De Kalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Johnson, Grace Elizabeth (Von Storch),
165 Laban St., Providence, R. I.
Jollie, Eleanor May 13 Garden St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Kent, Bertha Remington Phenix, R. I.
Mather, Ida Elizabeth 236 Lockwood St., Providence, R. I.
Olney, Fanny (Stone) 945 Chestnut St., Glendale, Cal.
Round,, Eda May 139 Superior St., Providence, R. I.
Short, Edith May Los Angeles, Cal.
Smith, Bertha Northup Pocasset Ave., Providence, R. I.
Thornton, Mary Dunham (Lawton) Box 1252, New Haven, Conn.
Van Home, Louise Adeline (Miller). 15 Friendship PI., Newport, R. I.
FORTY- SECOND CLASS 15. JANUARY, 1893.
Albro, Marion Louise 73 Common St., Providence, R. I.
Allin, Ida Louise (Batchelor) Warren. R. I.
Bradley, Emma Frances Somerville, Mass.
Brennan, Ellen Catherine 96 Middle St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Chapman, Addie Clara (Clarke) Westerly, R. I.
Croak, Mary Augusta Arnold's Mills, R. I.
Frost Minnie Elizabeth 107 East 26th St., New York, N. Y.
Glines, Grace Warner (Clift) 54 Lake St., Arlington, Mass.
King, Joanna Reynolds (Clark) Kenyon, R. I.
Logee, Maud May (Hornby) Clyde, R. I.
McGirr, Margaret Gertrude 57 Waterman St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Perry, Mabel Emily (Glendenning) 1018 E. 17th St., Oakland, Cal.
Potter, Emma Agnes 173 Roosevelt St., Providence, R. I.
Sherman, Mabel Wilbur (Arnold) 23 Aborn St., Providence, R. I.
Todd, Lizzie Edna (Adams) Oldtown, North Attleboro, Mass.
FORTY-THIRD CLASS 11. JUNE, 1893.
Bishop, Lydia May (Miner) West Barrington, R. I.
Cooper, Marion LaMoine 206 Howell St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 159
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Gooding, Bertha Lee
Hines, Mary Ellen Valley Falls, R. I.
Hodges, Kate Morton (Hanaford) Box 179, Mansfield, Mass.
King, Jennie Emma Mansfield, Mass.
Mann, Hattie Julia 162 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
McMullen, Isabella Alice (Splain) Waterbury, Conn.
*Richards, Annie Bullard
Sayles, Minnie (Smith) 184 Savin Hill Ave., Dorchester, Mass,
Sundberg, Jennie Box 566, Rumf ord, R. I.
FORTY-FOURTH CLASS 10. JANUARY, 1894.
Carpenter, Elizabeth Brownell 87 Plainfield St, Olneyville, R. I.
Flemming, Adelaide Joseph 65 Clyde St., Pawtucket, R. I,
Hayward, Emma Leonard (Kimball) .1493 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
O'Brien, Katherine Frances (Simonds) . .465 High St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Pope, Abbie Bourne (Fort) ... .414 W. Stafford St., Germantown, Pa.
Rathbun, Clara Lucetta Mabel (Davis) Washington, R. I.
Steadman, Annie Louise (Wilcox) .327 Edgecomb Av., New York City.
Tobin, Mary Theresa (Lynch) Melville Station, Newport, R. I.
Young, Bertha Edith (Pierce) ... .184 High St., Perth Amboy, N. J.
Young, Mary Louise 4 Lockwood St., Providence, R. I.
FORTY-FIFTH CLASS 19. JUNE, 1894.
Ames, Sarah Elizabeth Y. W. C. A., Lowell Mass.
Bucklin, Annie Elizabeth Georgiaville, R. I.
Collins, Alice Mabelle Ashton, R. I,
Cozzens, Minne Althea (Barnes) 177 Cross St., Central Falls, R. I.
*Cutler, Mrs. L. Emma
Fairbrother, Jeanette Wheaton 39 Walker St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Grant, Emma 83 Rolfe St., Auburn, R. I.
Hiscox, Grace Louise (Barrett) Blackstone, Mass.
Holbrook, Helen Frances 33 Hudson St., Providence, R. I.
Holbrook, Susan Wadsworth 33 Hudson St., Providence, R. I.
McLaren, Jeanette Amelia 255 Washington Ave., Providence, R. I.
McXerney, Alice May 206 Park St., Attleboro, Mass.
Moffitt, Elizabeth Gregg (Thurston) . . .33 Carter St., Providence, R. I.
Rathbun, Eva Abbie (Smith) 25 Pleasant St., Wickford, R. I.
Reed, Susanna 43 Nisbet St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Slade, Caroline Winslow 49 George St., Providence, R. I.
160 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Tillinghast, Pearl May (Remington),
216 Waterman Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Wilson, Emily Alice 24 Hill St., Pawtucket, R. I.
FORTY-SIXTH CLASS 14. JUNE, 1895.
Bennett, Eva Grafton Warren, R. I.
Cullen, Catherine Agnes Berkeley, R. I.
Curtiss, Bessie Holt. Wakefield, R. I.
Frethey, Clarie See. Brooklin, Maine.
Glen, Caroline Adelaide (Winsor),
10 Richardson St., Framingham, Mass.
Grant, May Isabelle 99 Pocasset Ave., Providence, R. I.
Green way, Frances Maud (Stimpson),
110 Parker St., Newton Centre, Mass.
Hines, Katherine Teresa Valley Falls, R. I.
Keach, Gertrude Marsh (Dexter) ... .31 Abbott St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Kiley, Fannie Margaret 13 Fifth St., East Providence R. I.
Lee, Minnie Sophia (Fisher) . .214% Irving Ave., Port Chester, N. Y.
Shepard, Ma'belle Florence (Gill) Canton Corner, Mass.
Tillinghast, Susan Avery (Nichols),
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Willard, Edgar Lincoln Newburyport, Mass.
FORTY-SEVENTH CLASS 26. JUNE, 1896.
Bragg, Ada Bertha (Cousins) ... .287 St. James St., Springfield, Mass.
Cady, Florence 3328 Pawtucket Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Crumley, Emma May (Johnson) 232 Cottage St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Crumley, Nellie (Margerum) Riverside, R. I.
Cunningham., Joanna Gertrude Berkeley, R. I.
Field, Josephine Taylor Little Compton, R. 1.
Fry, Esther Chapone East Greenwich, R. I.
Hines, Mary Elizabeth Valley Falls, R. I.
Kemp, Paulina Franklin Box 427, Warren, R. I.
King, Jo Winslow (Walpole) 102 Dexter St., Providence, R. I.
Knowles, Lillian Ethel Narragansett Pier, R. I.
Leigh ton, Etta Veronica 226 Dexter St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Leonard, Mary Emma 30 Thompson St., Fall River, Mass.
Macdonald, Josephine Stevens Point, Wis.
McCotter, Elizabeth Rankin 38 Chestnut Ave., Eden Park, R. I.
McKenna, Mary Margaret 46 Superior St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 161
NAME. ' P. O. ADDRESS.
Owen, Bertha Alice (Miner) Main St., East Greenwich, R. I.
Peck, Annie Heyden East Providence, R. I.
Phillips, Marion Edna (Smith) .... 14 Fairview Ave., Phenix, R. I.
Rathbun, Mrs. Bessie Brownell Buena Vista Ave., San Jose, Cal.
Rose, Alice Mabel Kingston, R. I.
Stubbs, Lillian Heig 88 Bailey St., Arlington, R. I.
Waite, Gertrude Stevens (Maxwell) Warren, R. I.
Ward, Mary Ellen Warren, R. I.
Westcott, May Thornton, R. I.
Wilcox, Nellie Case (Stockwell) 16 Hoffman Ave., Oil City, Pa.
FORTY-EIGHTH CLASS 29. JUNE, 1897.
Babcock, Hattie Sprague ( Babcock) Westerly, R. I.
Baker, Susan Louise 196 Shurtleff St., Chelsea, Mass.
Barber, Phebe Arnold (Beeman) 4 Botolph St., Atlantic, Mass.
Brennan, Gertrude Theresa 29 Hope St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Burke, Lucinda May West Barrington, R. I.
*Connolly, Catherine Loretta
Fisher, Edith Cameron (Cook) 405 Coe St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Hodge, Mary Emily Los Angeles, Cal.
Janes, Florence Cora (Pike) 33 Elizabeth St., Attleboro, Mass.
Jarvis, Jennie Mildred 98 Water St., Leominster, Mass.
Johnson, Mary Evelyn Centreville, R. I.
Matteson, Alice Belle (Lewis) Woodbine, N. J.
McElinn, Elizabeth Cecelia Centreville, R. I.
Mills, Theresa Minnie 258 Orms St., Providence, R. I.
Perry, Ada Mabel Dighton, Mass.
Phillips, Mary Dean 10 East George St., Providence, R. I.
Quirk, Mary Veronica Warren, R. I.
Ray, Emma Louise ....214 Taunton Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Rose, Mary Elizabeth (Holland) Saunderstown, R. I.
Sherman, Fanny Irene Portsmouth, R. I.
Smith, Mary Agnes 80 Blackstone St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Thornton, Sallie Eleanor 424 Killingly St., Providence, R. I.
Tully, Annie Louise 65% Bergen St., Providence, R. I.
Whitford, Mary (Whitford) Milton, Wis.
Wilber, Sarah Mabelle West Kingston, R. I.
Winsor, Eleanor Jackson 796 Hartford Ave., Johnston, R. I.
Wood, Bertha May Centreville, R. I.
Wood, Edna May 881 Hope St.. Bristol, R. I.
Wood, Katherine L. (Gyllensvard) . .1721 So. First St., Louisville, Ky.
162 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
FORTY-NINTH CLASS 16. 1898.
Apes, Lillias May (Lamoureux) Anthony, R. I.
Brown, Ann Eliza 547 Main St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Chase, Jane Elizabeth (Moran) Mansfield, Mass.
Dwyer, Julia Aloysius 63 Arnold St., Providence, R. I.
Galli, Marie 19 Narragansett Ave., Westerly, R. I.
Kirby, Mary E. (McNamara) . . ,112 Anthony St., E. Providence, R. I.
Lanpear, Emily G. (Eaton).. 50 North Norwood Ave., Buffalo, N. Y.
Leahey, Mary Louisa 106 Jenkins St., Providence, R. 1.
Meegan, Mary Winifred 23 Henry St., East Providence, R. I.
O'Leary, Elyne Hendricken . . 114 Mauran Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Openshaw, Bertha May 17 Second St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Riley, Abbie Gertrude Brighton, R. I.
Ryan, Ellen Lonsdale, R. I.
Ryan, Florence Sutherland 21 Salisbury St., Providence, R. I.
Tillinghast, Nellie (Hunt) Shelburne Falls, Mass.
Watson, Abbie Carpenter 81 Lyon Ave., East Providence, R. I.
FIFTIETH CLASS 40. JUNE, 1899.
Bates, Edith Ellen Hope, R. I.
Brownell, Charlotte Dickenson Little Compton, R. I.
*Burr, Marguerita Vernon
Campbell, Mary Agnes 424 High St., Lonsdale, R. I.
*Carpenter, Emma Jane
Cochrane, Antonia M. (Walker) . .216 Somerset Ave., Taunton, Mass.
Conley, Katherine Irene 236 North Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Conway, Mary Katherine 53 North Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Cowen, Henrietta Norwell 12 Auburn St., Maiden, Mass.
Craig, Mary Murdock State Normal School, Montclair, N. J.
Demers, Clara Loretta.! 66 Woodbine St., Central Falls, R. I.
Demers, Mary Agnes. . 66 Woodbine St., Central Falls, R. I.
Doyle, Sarah Ann 60 Cross St., Central Falls, R. I.
Fames, Mary Elizabeth 229 Benefit St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Gallagher, Eliza Agnes 125 Governor St., Providence, R. I.
Garland, Ann Jane 59 Clifford St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Grimshaw, Edyth May 321 Providence St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Hall, Alice Maria 71 High St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Hicks, Bertha Stanley Bristol Ferry, R. I.
Hicks, Carrie Louise (Worcester) 62 Cole St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hokanson, Emma Alida Rumf ord, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 163
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Holt, Elizabeth Davy 11 Hay ward St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Jackson, Jeannette May 3 Park St., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Kee, Sarah Jane
Lightbown, Mary Veronica Lonsdale, R. I.
Macdonald, Estella Christina 62 Carpenter St. Providence, R. I.
Maher, Lillie Agnes (Owen) ... .100 Priscilla Ave., Providence, R. I.
Meagher, Ellen Cecelia 205 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Morpeth, Rachel May 62 Carpenter St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Powers, Margaret Helen Box 247, Pawtucket, R. I.
Prentiss, Mary Alice (Bourne) 71 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Reed, Ethel Lincoln 411 Somerset Ave., Taunton, Mass.
Sherman, Jessie (Sherman) Phillipsdale, R. I.
Smith, Annie Melissa (Calef) 203 Greenville Ave., Manton, R. I.
Smith, Lillian Etta (Reed) 302 Park Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Spaulding, Alice Follet (Moore) ... .156 Cross St., Central Falls, R. I.
Williams, Florence Ethlyn 522 Pontiac Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Woodward, Annie Louise (Francis) 18 Shore St., Taunton, Mass.
Corrigan, Louisa Jane Box 126, Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Hamerton, Sarah Isabel
Kibbee, Ruth Wood 26 Abbott St., Valley Falls, R. I.
McGann, Mary Etta 278 Hope St., Bristol, R. I.
Mitchell, Bernice Pearl Southold, N. Y.
Taylor, Barbara Christie 107 Warner St, Newport, R. I.
Viall, Maude Adalene (Kim,ball) 13 Francis Ave., Auburn, R. I.
CITY A CLASS JANUARY, 1900.
Almy, Helen Marion 198 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Costello, Margaret Loretto 67 Merino Ave., Providence, R. I.
D'Arcy, Margaret Mary 962 Eddy St., Providence, R. I.
Emmons, Annie Frances 482 Laurel Hill Ave., Arlington, R. I.
Froberg, Ellen Petronella 509 Morris Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gannon, Lucy Etta 649 Harris Ave., Providence, R. I.
Huntsman, Helen Howard 367 Angell St., Providence, R. I.
Killoran, Ellen Louise 62 Pekin St., Providence, R. I.
Manchester, Emma Francis 152 Superior St., Providence, R. I.
*O'Connor, Mary Josephine
Prendergast, Margaret Butler 61 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Saver, Inez Vernon Ludlow, Vt.
164 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Seton, Mary Helen 1179 Elmwood Ave., Providence. R. I.
Williams, Mabel Eugenia 76 Providence St., Providence, R. I.
*Brayton, Amelia Louisa
Carroll, Catherine Camillius 108 Pine St., Pawtucket, R. 1.
Conlon, Annie Frances 47 Brown St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Corrigan, Alice Theresa 264 Pleasant St., New Bedford, Mass.
Currier, Mary Lena 12 Howard Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Day, Agnes Regina 121 Wall St., Elizabeth, X. J.
Latham, Anna Mabel (Mason) 2 Cushing Ave., Nashua, N. H.
Lennon, Esther Veronica 96 Pond St., Pawtucket, R. 1.
Mattison, Abbie Adelia 183 Armington Ave., Edge wood, R. 1.
McGuigan, Marjory Cecelia 588 Park Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Monahan, Delia Loretta 91 Vine St., East Providence, R. 1.
Nichols, Ellen Maud Box 127, Natick, R. 1.
Peavey, Gertrude May Ogdensburg, N. Y.
Phillips, Jennie Mabel.. 1283 Narragansett Boulevard, Edgewood, R. I.
Sweet, Florence Sophia 535 Pontiac Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Wesley, Alelia Ethel 185 Calla St., Providence, R. I.
CITY A CLASS JUNE, 1900.
Brown, Betsey Eunice 149 Althea St., Providence, R. I.
Chace, Florence Ethel 624 Plainfield St., Providence, R. I.
Clemence, Stella Risley 167 Harrison St., Providence, R. I.
Darcy, Genevieve Lauretta 670 Smith St., Providence, R. I.
Dill, Lauraetta Melissa 84 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Geary, Anna 'Clarissa
Greene, Helen Maria 47 Pekin St., Providence, R. I.
Greene, Mary Cornelia 47 Pekin St., Providence, R. I.
Kimball, Ethel May 48 Berwyn Ave., Chicago, 111.
Knight, Florence Pearl 224 Pearl St., Providence, R. I.
MacKay, Jeanie Thornburn 157 Grand Ave., Providence, R. I.
Mann, Alice Brown 49 Wilson St., Providence, R. I.
Mayor, Althea 9 Orms St., Providence, R. I.
Mulligan, Sarah Marie .24 Linton St., Providence, R. I.
O'Connor, Margaret Ann 282 Williams St., Providence, R. I.
Padien, Emma Theresa 145 Julian St., Providence, R. I.
Quinn, Mary Joseph 42 Madison St., Providence, R. I.
Raftery, Mary Serene 55 Candace St., Providence, R. I.
*Shanley, Mary Ursula
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 165
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
KINDERGARTEN JUNE, 1900.
Bishop, Marguerite Louise (Rauschenbauch) Patterson, N. Y.
Clark, Mattie Mariette (Capron) Rochester, N. Y.
Cooney, Annie Frances 105 Davis St., Providence, R. I.
Garvin, Xorma 577 Broad St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Kennedy, Sarah Lovett 549 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Rickard, Mary Durfee 26 Arch St., Providence, R. I.
Sabre, Beatrice Whiting 79 Camp St., Providence, R. I.
Smith, Helen Christina 20 Park Place, Pawtucket, R. I.
Stewart, Mary Esther Lincoln, Newport, R. I.
*S\van, Frances Wheaton
Walker, Maude Eliza 75 Vinton St, Providence, R. I.
Wicklund, Julia Christina (Edgerton) . .103 Broad St., New London, Ct.
Woodward, Minnie Sumner 911 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Babcock, Clara Elizabeth Potter Hill, R. I.
Brannon. Catherine Lucina 79 Eagle St., Providence, R. I.
Breitschmid, Ida Louisa (Livingston) Baltimore, Md.
Coughlin, Mary Eva Manton, R. I.
Crumb, Virginia Morgan Riverside, R. I.
Emmons, Annie Frances 482 Laurel Hill Ave., Arlington, R. I.
Field, Alma Clara 374 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
Ford. Emma Nichols (Blake) 21 Deborah St., Providence, R. I.
Geisel. Julia 152 Montgomery Ave., Providence, R. I.
Grant, Pearl North Bellingham, Mass.
Greene, Gertrude Frances East Milton, Mass.
Hixson. Grace Eleanor. Sharon, Mass.
Holmes, Emma Frank Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Knoop, Ella Sophie (Sherman) 86 Holden St, Providence, R. I.
Laney, Annie Lauretta 89 Andem St., Providence, R. I.
Moore, Zilla Clarke 818 East 19th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Perry, Anna Augusta Rolf e St, Auburn, R. I.
Riley, Julia Agnes 1 Forrest St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Stone, Mabelle Frances Valley Falls, R. I.
Sweeney, Anna Gertrude 52 Holman St., Attleboro, Mass.
Thornton, Florence Isabel 424 Killingly St., Providence, R. I.
Wicklund, Irene Elizabeth 15 Grove Ave., Westerly, R. I.
CITY A CLASS JANUARY, 1901.
Devenish, Marie Eustelle 90 Davis St., Providence, R. I.
Fallon. Margaret Grace 84 Oak St., Providence, R. I.
166 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Gannon, Rose Harriette
'Gorman, Mary Josephine 132 Camden Ave., Providence, R.
Hurley, Lucy Liguori 36 East George St., Providence, R.
Maguire, Margaret Elizabeth (Orms)..17 Power St., Providence, R.
McLeod, Elizabeth Belle 138 Jewett St., Providence, R.
Murray, Katherine Mary 18 Wood St., Providence R.
Olsen, Martha Isabel (Keene) 146 Indiana Ave., Providence, R.
Turner, Grace Annie (Munroe) 56 Flora St., Providence, R.
Winsor, Jennie Evelyn Johnston, R.
*Bennett, Ethel Foster
Buffington, Ethel Liddon (Spink) Anthony, R. 1.
Capron, Nellie Mason 237 Washington St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Clemence, Stella Risley 167 Harrison St., Providence, R. I.
*Cronin, Margaret Regina
Dill, Laura Melissa 32 Arnold St., Providence, R. I.
Gillies, Anita Gregory Riverpoint, R. I.
Gorman, Mary Theresa (Meehan) Berkeley, R. I.
Greene, Helen Marie 47 Pekin St., Providence, R. I.
Greene, Mary Cornelia 47 Pekin St., Providence, R. I.
Griffin, Loretta Mabel 187 Washington Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hopkins, Bertha Ethel 18 Barrows St., Olneyville, R. I.
McCarthy, Clara Veronica 42 East St., Providence, R. I.
McDermott, Mary Ellen 943 South Main St., Fall River, Mass.
McGuire, Agnes Marie Riverpoint, R. I.
Moriarity, Catherine Frances 19 Oakhill Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Myrick, Velina Frances Sharon, Mass.
O'Connor, Margaret Ann Teresa... 282 Williams St., Providence, R. I.
Rothemich, Caroline Josephine 203 Lowell Ave., Olneyville, R. I.
Seton, Mary Helen 1179 Elmwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
Warren, Ada Louise (Kendall) 481 Pontiac Ave., Auburn, R. 1.
Whitford, Katherine Greene 152 Harrison St., Pawtucket, R. I.
CITY A CLASS JUNE, 1901.
Bennett, Clara Elizabeth (Tallman) . .1112 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Blessing, Margaret Mary 22 Vernon St., Providence, R. I.
Burdick, Annie Potter 17 Halsey St., Providence, R. I.
Dunn, Mary Cornelia 41 Vinton St., Providence, R. I.
Gardner, Mabel Tillinghast 511 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 167
NAME. " P. O. ADDRESS.
Gearon, Jane Veronica 39 Harkness St., Providence, R. I.
Giblin, Harriet Louise 68 Bernon St., Providence, R. I.
Hodges, Mabel Carr Champ lain, N. Y.
Huntington, Gladys 19 Hawthorne St., Providence, R.
McElroy, Susan 256 Wickenden St., Providence, R.
McGinn, Katherine Frances 195 Laban SL, Providence, R.
McKenna, Mary Catherine 98 Steele St., Providence, R.
Murphy, Catherine Elizabeth 525 Branch Ave., Providence, R.
Murray, Cecilia Agnes 47 Linwood Ave., Providence, R.
O'Malley, Elizabeth Gertrude 63 Greeley St., Providence, R.
Shanley, Mary Ursula (Ellis) Burlington, V .
Sweet, Vera Garfield 34 Division St., Providence, R.
Whittemore, Alice Bartlett 87 Willow St., Providence, R.
Williams, Mary Ann Elizabeth 611 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Wright, Alice Elizabeth (Paine) 403 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
:: Adams, Annie Frances
Barnes, Grace Ashton, R. I.
Carpenter, Ida Maria 744 Broadway, East Providence, R. I.
Carpenter, Ruth Mildred 10 Humes St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Dowd, Lillian Gertrude Mary 127 Pearce St, Fall River, Mass.
Greene, Mabel Gertrude Riverpoint, R. I.
Hanley, Catherine Ellen Pascoag, R. I.
Heckman, Gertrude Burden Plainville, Mass.
Hurd, Lottie 9 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
McGinn, Mary Teressa Potter Hill, R. I.
Mowry, Helen Sayles 162 Academy Ave., Providence, R. I.
Murray, Katherine Mary 21 Wood St., Providence, R. I.
Xixon, Annie Josephine Warren, R. I.
O'Brien, Katherine Elizabeth Mulberry St., Warren, R. I.
Perkins, Florence May Arnold's Mills, R. I.
Reilly, Margaret Mary 598 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Roberts, Martha Jane 109 Williams St., Providence, R. I.
Rovelto, Cathalena Louise 27 Woodlawn Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Scallon, Rose Anna 145 Arthur Ave., Providence, R. I.
Slocum, Gertrude May 11 Newton Ave., Westerly, R. I.
Whaley, Mary Daniel Wakefield, R. I.
Wilson, Lillian (Edmond) 104 High St., Westerly, R I.
CITY A CLASS JANUARY, 1902.
Clarke, Miriam Alida North Reading, Mass.
i68 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Dawley, Edna Jessie (Ford) 92 Tenth St., Providence, R. I.
Dobson, Ethel Waring (Sayles) 146 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Donovan, Jennie Agnes 202 Power St., Providence, R. I.
Flagg, Carolyne Davis 166 Harrison St., Providence, R. I.
Flynn, Catherine Elizabeth 483 Washington St., Providence, R. I.
Holland, Mary Theresa 16 Albro St., Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Philamena Margaret 217 Regent Ave., Providence, R. I.
Killian, Anna Mary 58 Wayne St., Providence, R. I.
Little, Ada . . Oneco, Conn.
McCallion, Ellen Regina 4 Armington Ave., Providence, R. I.
McCarthy, Frances Mary 188 Lippitt St., Providence, R. I.
McMurrough, Mary Elizabeth 173 Pine St., Providence, R. I.
Moran, Laura Anthony 52 Nichols St., Providence, R. I.
*O'Brien, Mary Ellen
Perrin, Maude Ethel 15 Alverson Ave., Olneyville, R. I.
Turbitt, Agnes Louise 18 Alton St., Providence, R. I.
Wallace, Mabel Marsh 449 Plainfield St., Providence, R. I.
Adams, Lizzie Aldrich 110 Central Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Batcheler, Bessie Mae 80 Lexington Ave., Providence, R. I.
Bennet, Clara Elizabeth
*Brayton, Amelia Louisa
*Brennan, Jane Kent
Cahill, Catherine Irene 116 Orchard St., East Providence, R. I.
Dunn, Mary Cornelia 41 Vinton St., Providence, R. I.
Gleason, Daisy Harriet (Whittemore),
1814 K St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
Harvey, Anna Margaret 117 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Horrigan, Josephine Olive (Battey) Pascoag, R. I.
O'Reilly, Irene Katherine (Heffernan),
Woodland Road, Woonsocket, R. I.
Orswell, Emeline Amy 631 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Rathbun, Jennie Florence Arlington, R. I.
Stable, Julia Etta 254 Washington St., Providence, R. I.
Straight, Mary Elizabeth 71 Goldsmith Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Stratton, Mabel Mary 284 Atwells Ave., Providence, R. I.
Sweeney, Katherine Isabelle 311 South Main St., Attleboro, Mass.
Tucker, Emma Bascom (Kenyon) . .35 Chestnut St., So. Manchester, Ct.
Wales, Bertha Elizabeth 22 Harrison Ave., Taunton, Mass.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 169
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Walker, Mary Edith (Jenkins) 745 Park Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Watts, Laura Evelyn 78 Hillwood Ave., Arlington, R. I.
CITY A CLASS JUNE, 1902.
Abrams, Marion Colver 16 Peace St., Providence, R. I.
Ballou, Zerlina Luella Uxbridge, Mass.
Barber, Lulu 4 Adams St., Lakewood, R.
Boas, Bella 4 Oak St., Providence, R.
Crane, Lillian Eliza 58 Wilson St., Providence, R.
Danielson, Edith Russell 655 Public St., Providence, R.
Eaton, Mary Chedell 69 Doyle Ave., Providence, R.
Feeley, Bertha Louise 583 Public St., Providence, R.
Gleason, Winifred Ellen 116 Congdon St, Providence, R.
Hartley, Millie Jane 482 Public St., Providence, R.
Kilkenny, Geraldine Marie 5 Norwich Ave., Providence, R.
Lunden, Olga Johanna 83 Preston St., Providence, R.
Monahan, Winifred Josephine. .. .223 Wickenden St., Providence, R.
Moore, Clara (Harris) 156 Reynolds Ave., Providence, R.
Moran, Mary Columba 118 Tockwotton St., Providence, R.
Peirce, Emma Grace 18 Wood St., Providence, R.
Perkins, Jessie Garfield 196 Washington Ave., Providence, R.
Rogers, Bessie Irene 171 Reservoir Ave., Providence, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN, JUNE, 1902.
Burdick, Ethel 46 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Edwards, Dora Moses 8 Parkside Road, Providence, R. I.
Gilbert, Anna Louise 248 East 34th St., New York, N. Y.
Hobson, Louise Boyce Riverside, R. I.
Laughlin, Ethel Gertrude East Greenwich, R. I.
Marshall, Bertha (Taylor) 47 Potter St., Pawtucket, R. 1.
Alden, Bessie Mabel 58 Durf ee St., Providence, R. I.
Beattie. Sarah 43 Illinois St., Central Falls, R. I.
Beebe, Edith Adella Noank, Conn.
Bennett, Clara Elizabeth (Tallman) . .1112 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Brady, Alice Gertrude 71 Updike St, Providence, R. I.
Brownell, Viola Walden (Knight). 51 Congress Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cashman, Jennie Elizabeth 160 Sterry St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Cavanaugh, Mary Aloysius 48 Whipple St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Crandall, Emma 94 Brownell St., Providence, R. I.
Davoren, Mary Persis Bristol, R. I.
170 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Dodge, Jessie Evelyn 1195 N. Main St., Providence, R. I.
Donahey, Mabel Elizabeth 33 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
Dunn, Mary Cornelia 41 Vinton St., Providence, R. I.
Farnsworth, Nellie Edith (Crandall), 13 Summit Av., Providence, R. I.
Leonard, Violet Mabel (Bishop)
Marr, Barbara Anderson Cranston, R. I.
McNelly, Annie Marie 11 Walnut St., Westerly, R. I.
Meehan, Ellen Emma 672 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Moran, Eunice Veronica 240 Pawtucket Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Phetteplace, Sarah Evelyn (Fisher) Northbridge, Mass.
Potter, Edna Garfield 12 Linden St., Brookline, Mass.
Reynolds, Angie Grace 72 Mineral Spring Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Rockwood, Nellie Pauline Randolph, Mass.
Ross, Josephine Winifred 102 Summit St., East Providence, R. I.
Sealander, Hulda Riverside, R. I.
Short, Katherine May .56 John St., East Providence, R. I.
Sweet, Vera Garfield 34 Division St., Providence, R. I.
Agnew, Agnes Elizabeth 114 Prospect Hill St., Newport, R. I.
Allenson, Amy Edith (Noble) 49 Summit St., Central Falls, R. I.
* Arnold, Eva Elmira
Barber, Lulu 4 Adams St., Lakewood, R. I.
Bliss, Rose Danielson Port Deposit, Md.
Burdick, Annie Potter 46 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cahill, Teresa Clare 116 Orchard St., East Providence, R. I.
Carroll, Elizabeth Veronica Phenix, R. I.
Cohen, Etta Esther (Kramer) Woonsocket, R. I.
Collins, Reba Janette 8 Fitz Terrace, Chelsea, Mass.
Demers, Sarah Cecilia 66 Woodbine St., Pleasant View, R. I.
Donovan, Jennie Agnes 202 Power St., Providence, R. I.
Donovan, Mary Ann Anthony, R. I.
Gardner, Mabel Tillinghast 511 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Gearon, Jane Veronica 39 Harkness St., Providence, R. I.
Hawkes, Abbie Anne 16 Pallas St., Providence, R. I.
Hokanson, Edith Josephine Rumford, R. I.
Johnson, Philomena Margaret 217 Regent Ave., Providence, R. I.
Lewis, Susie Clarke Ashaway, R. I.
McCaffrey, Jennie Evelyn Warren, R. I.
McCusker, Winifred Madeline Arkwright, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 171
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
McDermott, Eliza Magdalen 75 Coe St., Woonsocket, R.
McGinty, Mary Josephine 353 North Main St., Pawtucket, R.
McMurrough, Mary Elizabeth 173 Pond St., Providence, R.
Parkis, Florence Edith Slatersville, R.
Piche, Elizabeth Mary Harrisville, R.
Robinson, Anne Jane (Potter) 410 Main St., Norwich, Conn.
Shanahan, Mary Genevieve Newport, R. I.
Wheeler, Harriet Carleton Asbury Park, N. J.
KINDERGARTEN, JUNE, 1903.
Angell, Ellen May 42 Arch St., Providence, R. I.
Carroll, Bertha Genevieve 66 Lyon St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Clarke, Celia Elizabeth (Goodman), 106 Indiana Av., Providence, R. I.
Congdon, Lilian Myrtella 36 Chapin Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gaddes, Florence Gertrude (Anderton),
394 Lonsdale Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hamlin, Charlotte Bradford 7 Humboldt Ave., Providence, R. I.
Seymour, Etta Josephine Warren, R. I.
Simonds, Sue Carter 33 Pond St., Beverly, Mass.
Barber, Phebe Alice Hope Valley, R.
Barry, Julia Etta 73 John St., East Providence, R.
Boas, Bella 4 Oak St., Providence, R.
Campbell, Florence Margaret Warren, R.
Carlin, Mary Augusta 33 Wood St., Providence, R.
Carpenter, Ethel Louise 105 Chapin Ave., Providence, R.
Clarke, Catherine Louise 81 Pine St., Pawtucket, R.
Clavin, Clotilda Josephine Harrisville, R.
Donnelly, Teresa Angeline 907 Branch Ave., Providence, R.
Durf ee, Ethel Florence Howard, R.
Fee, Rosella Pascoag, R.
Flagg, Carolyne Davis 166 Harrison St., Providence, R. I
Gannon, Eleanor Marie 649 Harris Ave., Providence, R. I
Hayden, Alice Sarah Pascoag, R. I
*Hines, Elizabeth Veronica
Holland, Mary Theresa 16 Albro St., Providence, R. I
Irons, Emma Annette (Hopkins) Chepachet, R. I
James, Sarah Lila (Bliss) R. F. D. No. 1, Wakefield, R. I
Jarvis, Lillian Opal West Groton, Mass
172 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Kelley, Gertrude Louise 347 Carrington St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Kilkenny, Geraldine Marie 1356 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Killian, Anna Mary 66 Wayne St., Providence, R. I.
Little, Ada .5 Ocean St., Providence, R. I.
McCarthy, Frances Mary 188 Lippitt St., Providence, R. I.
McGlynn, Margaret Loretta 33 Snell St., Fall River, Mass.
McVay, Mary Lucilla 174 Summit St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Miner, Adelaide Louise Natick, R. I.
Morrison, Elizabeth Claire 30 Malbone Road, Newport, R. I.
Nestor, Katherine Vincentia 55 Broad St., Westerly, R. I.
*O'Brien, Mary Ellen
Fe>kins, Jessie Garfield 233 Messer St., Providence, R. I.
Shippee, Lydia Ann 257 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Stanhope, Mary Elizabeth 360 Broadway, Newport, R. I.
Taber, Eleaet Elona (Beaman) . .208 Linwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
Trescott, Annie May 129 Stanley St., Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Tully, Marguerite 47 Park St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Wallace, Mabel Marsh (Clarke) .. .449 Plainfield St., Providence, R. I.
Brindle, Helena May (Leonard) . .105 Alverson Ave., Providence, R.
Clifford, Mary Ellen 31 Grape St., Providence, R.
*Cram, Mabel Evelyn
Crofwell, Agnes Katherine 28 Joslin St., Providence, R.
Durfee, Mary Elizabeth Seapowet Ave., Tiverton, R.
Eddy, Emma Allen 297 Spring St., Newport, R.
Galvin, Loretta Margaret North Swansea, Mass.
Giblin, Rose Anna 295 Fountain St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Gifford, Honora Rowena 14 Bliss Road, Newport, R. I.
Gleason, Winifred Ellen 116 Congdon St., Providence, R. I.
Grady, Elizabeth Irene 11 Milk St., Providence, R. I.
Hedburg, Lillie Laura Elizabeth .21 Gibbs Ave., Newport, R. I.
Hoxsie, Ruth Emma Charlestown, R. I.
Hunt, Lillie Amelia 1651 Cranston St., Knightsville, R. I.
Lunden, Olga Johanna 83 Preston St., Providence, R. I.
Mitchell, Emily Annabel Harrisville, R. I.
Moe, Agnes Marian Greenwood Ave., Rumford, R. I.
Moore, Clara 47 Da-boll St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 173
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
KINDERGARTEN, JULY, 1904.
Allen, Cordelia Lewin 46 Vernon St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Mackie, Mary Harrison Ave., Newport, R. I.
Anthony, Elizabeth Palmer Middletown, R. I.
Barbour, Helen Cora (Carmack) Ontario St., Providence, R. I.
Bransfield, Jennie May 62 Cross St., Westerly, R. I.
Carroll, Alice Barbara 66 Lyon St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Cole, Martha Kathleen 81 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Day, Olivia Marie Cecilia 71 Davis St., Providence, R. I.
Easterbrooks, Alice May (Richardson)..? Forest St., Attleboro, Mass.
Edgecomb, Anna Carolyn 14 George St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Flynn, Nellie Irene 22 Rocket St., Westerly, R. I.
Gile, Beatrice 19 Third St., Attleboro, Mass.
Hayden, Eva Belle 148 Norwood Ave., Edgewood, R. I.
Lee, Annie Easton 359 Spring St., Newport, R. I.
Legate, Alice Mabel 389 Pine St, Providence, R. I.
Loftus, Bessie Agnes 1377 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R. I.
McAlonan, Mary Jane Georgiana 81 Lawn St., Providence, R. I.
McKenna, Theresa Veronica 132 Hudson St, Providence, R. I.
O'Hara, Hannah Teresa 31 Corinth St., Providence, R. I.
Osborne, Nettie Gertrude 199 Second Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Parker, Ellen Jane 18 Elmhurst Ave., Providence, R. I.
Ploettner, Viola Ulrika Pawtucket, R. I.
Robblee, Stella Hannah 71 Regent St., Providence, R. I.
Schutz, Helene (Hellar) . . .40th St., and Grand Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Snow, Edith Maria 291 Lamatine St., Jamaica Plain, Mass.
Thurber, Beulah Evelyn ( Wheaton) Seekonk, Mass.
Aylsworth, Leila 1853 Broad St., Providence, R. I.
Bacheller, Nellie Hathaway Amherst, N. H.
Bingham, Margaret Ashton, R. I.
Brennan, Anna Teresa Peacedale, R. I.
Cosgrove, Mary Alice 178 Woodward Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Cowen, Geneva Gale Somerville, N. J.
Dennegan, Mary Agnes Riverpoint, R. I.
Donovan, Alice Maud Mary 209 Spring St., Newport, R. I.
Fulton, Annie Isabel 25 Violet St., Providence, R. I.
Hennessey, Jennie Elizabeth C...112 Warren Ave., E. Providence, R. I.
Holmquist, Ellen Otelia 10 Alphonso St., Providence, R. I.
174 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Leach, Bessie Eleanor Slatersville, R.
Luther, Carrie Garfield North Scituate, R.
Maloney, Margaret Elizabeth 71 Bernon St., Providence, R.
McManus, Mary Elizabeth Coventry, R.
Mowry, Ethel 162 Academy Ave., Providence, R.
Mowry, Grace Annie
Murray, Ellen- Mary 47 Lin wood Ave., Providence, R. 1.
Murray, Mary Helena 125 Governor St., Providence R. 1.
Orpin, Bertha Jane 43 Bassett St., Providence, R. I.
Perry, Nellie Violet 123 Elmwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
Roche, Marion deSales Whitinsville, Mass.
Salois, Mary Elizabeth 299 Knight St., Providence, R. I.
Smith, Eleanor Beverly 89 Kenyon St., Providence, R. I.
Thornton, Louise Estelle Foxboro, Mass.
Tiernan, Mary Winifred 126 East George St., Providence, R. I.
Toolin, Alice Cecilia Cowesett, R. I.
Walsh, Mary Taft 6 Cromwell St., Providence, R. I.
Whaley, Clara Pullen Wakefield, R. I.
Young, Florence Edith 231 North Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN JUNE, 1905.
Allen, May Barton 625 Angell St., Providence, R. I.
Angell, Grace Caroline Touissett, Mass.
Atwell, Edna Lawrence Hebronville, Mass.
Bates, Emma Irene R. F. D., Oaklawn, R. I.
Carpenter, Mary Amanda 774 Broadway, East Providence, R. I.
Chase, Alice Stevens 128 Fifth St., East Providence, R. I.
Church, Annie Louise Warren, R. I.
Clough, Grace Linda Slatersville, R. I.
Cullen, Elizabeth Magdalen 119 Spring St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Easton, Mary Annie Louise 145 Wesleyan Ave., Providence, R. I.
Fairbanks, Rachel Marion 13 Summit St., Central Falls, R. I.
Goff, Flora May Hebronville, Mass.
Gooding, Grace Louise 144 Central St., Central Falls, R. I.
Hayes (Mrs.), Eliza Place 13 Parkis Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hey worth, Marguerite Monroe 9 Wesleyan Ave., Providence, R. I.
Huntsman, Edith Antoinette. .. .37 South Angell St., Providence, R. I.
Makin, Jessie Viola 90 Prospect St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Murphy, Sara Mae Ashaway, R. I.
Reid, Jennie 16 Friendship St., Newport, R. I.
Sampson, Mildred Louise 27 Friendship St., Newport, R. I.
Smith, Beulah Worth 25 Lenox Ave., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 175
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Stafford, Charlotte Leavitt 2 Humboldt Ave., Providence, R. I.
Whittaker, Bernice Elizabeth 78 Earle St., Central Falls, R. I.
Wiswall, Marion Constance 50 Lexington Ave., Providence, R. I.
Aldred, Lillian Hilton 42 Salina St., Providence, R. I.
Appleby, Mabel Evelyn Mansfield, Mass.
Bannon, Zita May 378 Central St., Central Falls, R. I.
Barry, Ursula Marie 60 East Manning St., Providence, R. I.
Bell, Hattie May Hillsgrove, R. I.
Black, Mary Ann Pascoag, R. I.
Burlingame, Ada Maria Box 16, East Killingly, Conn.
Carney, Sara Jane 15 Spring St., Westerly, R. I.
Carroll, Sara Agnes 658 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cole, Ethel Cordelia Greenwood, R. I.
Collins, Anna Elizabeth k Alton, R. I.
Comstock, Mary Canfield Bedlow Ave., Newport, R. I.
Corcoran, Mary Ellen (Cunningham) . .Andem St., Providence, R. I.
Coutanche, Catherine Grace 91 Sheldon St., Providence, R. I.
Cox. Theresa Emma 40 Sterry St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Creamer. Ellen Mary (Kindelan) 99 Clyde St, Pawtucket, R. I.
Crumley, Laura Jeanette Danielson, Conn.
Davis, Gertrude L. (Guckelberger) . . .25 Battey St., Providence, R. I.
Dean, Charlotte May Augustine 36 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Fitz-Simon, May Angela Lonsdale, R. I.
Gannon, Harriet Loretta 225 Bellevue Ave., Providence, R. I.
Garity, Rose Cecilia 49 Lyon St., Fall River, Mass.
Gorman, Mary Anne 48 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Hawes, Irene Box 303, Riverside, R. I.
Hayes, Alma Lillis Block Island, R. I.
Latham, Annie Celinda 117 Clay St., Central Falls, R. I.
Lennon, Elizabeth Lillian 96 Pond St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Martin, Inez Lillian 62 Conant St., Pawtucket, R. I.
McLaren, Bertha Frances 116 Columbia Ave., Edgewood, R. I.
McMahon, Mary Monica Berkeley, R. I.
Morrison, Genevieve Frances 30 Malbone Ave., Newport, R. I.
Schiller, Edna Valerie 53 Tremont St., Central Falls, R. I.
Shea, Mary Monica 26 Noyes Ave., Westerly, R. I.
Taylor, Mabel Lydia Riverpoint, R. I.
Tierney. May Josephine 146 Woodbine St., Auburn, R. I.
Tyrrell. Elizabeth Grace 90 Carpenter St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Vaughn. Bertha Greene Davisville, R. I.
176 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Walsh, Teresa Catherine Blackstone, Mass.
Welsh, Alice Mary 23 Wood St., Warren, R. I.
Barnett, Stella May 607 Mount Hope St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Conyers, Ada 904 Cranston St., Arlington, R. I.
*Dennis, Emily May
Fitzsimmons, Katherine Harriet 120 Metcalf St., Providence, R. 1.
Flanagan, Rosanna Cecilia 1705 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R. I.
Frost, Grace Larua West Barrington, R. I.
Fuller, Inez Mabel 258 Lowell Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gibbs, Eva Lucile 1736 Westminster St., Providence, R. I.
Greenblatt, Eva Rebecca 137 Brownell St., Providence, R. I.
Hadley, May 269 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I
Hedberg, Hilla Bertha Maria 21 Gibbs Ave., Newport, R. I.
Hoye, Monica Mary 59 Glenham St., Providence, R. I.
Kingsley, Gertrude May * 266 Webster Ave., Providence, R. I.
Law, Clara Alice 286 Villa Nova, Woonsocket, R. I.
Martin, Helen Agatha 420 Fairmount St., Woonsocket, R. I.
McGinty, Catherine Agnes 353 North Main St., Pawtucket, R. I.
McKenna, Isabelle Madeline 98 Steele St., Providence, R. I.
Nason, Edna Eldred Nasonville, R. I.
Norton, Sarah Lillian 66 Hospital St., Providence, R. I.
Phillips, Velna Inez Phenix, R. I.
Rattigan, Nora Frances 388 Douglas Ave., Providence, R. I.
Rice, Annie Eleanor 83 Burrington St., Providence, R. I.
Smith, Clara Gertrude 45 Thacher St., Attleboro, Mass.
Stillman, Phebe Anna Ashaway, R. I.
Webb, Clara Elizabeth Howard, R. I.
Whipple, Bertha May Woonsocket, R. I.
Whiting, Edna May Barrington, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN JUNE, 1906.
Burnham, Bertha Agnes 27 Rand St., Central Falls, R. I.
Collison, Mabelle Ellen 115 Pocasset Ave., Providence, R. I.
Currier, Elsie Maria 12 Howard Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Durfee, Mabel Marshall 1057 Cranston St., Arlington, R. I.
Forsyth, Lulu Maud 108 Harold St., Mount Pleasant, R. I.
Grimes, Emma L. (Harson) . . . .94 Carrington Ave., Providence, R. I.
Hanrahan, Alice Helena 11 Ruggles St., Providence, R. 1.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 177
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Horton, Elizabeth Bruce 21 Star St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hunt, Maud Grosvenor 109 Narragansett Ave., Providence, R. I.
Manatt, Lucile Faith 59 Charles Field St., Providence, R. I.
McElroy, Nellie Madeline 88 Brook St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Pease, Bertha Adaline 72 Concord St., Nashua, N. H.
Saunders, Carrie Lua Westerly, R. I.
Sawyer, Winifred Warren .... Care of Mr. L. Tufts, Pinehurst, N. C.
Sturdy, Marguerite (Cannon) 159 Wesleyan Ave., Providence, R. I.
Swan, Florence Vincent Westerly, R. I.
Tingley, Mary Bullock 48 South Union St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Tweedley, Elizabeth Douglas 1257 Cranston St., Cranston, R. I.
Wilmarth, Elsie Mae Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Adams, Climena 484 Wellington Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Anthony, Jennie Louise (Cooke)..17 Madison Ave., Jersey City, N. J.
Babcock, Lizzie Sharpe 341 Broadway, Newport, R.
Baxter, Helen Gushing 147 Waverly St., Providence, R.
Blake, Margaret Whyte 47 School St., Westerly, R.
Bray, Susan Elizabeth 48 Anthony Ave., Pawtucket, R.
Casey, Katherine Louise 27 Claremont Ave., Providence, R.
Coffey, Margaret Maybelle M 20 Seventh St., Providence, R.
Cook, Vera Sherburne 202 Providence St., Woonsocket, R.
Cronan, Alice Veronica 29 Rebekah St., Woonsocket, R.
Cunningham, Mabel Stanton Box 382, Warren. Mass.
Devlin. Gertrude Maria 28 Main St., Blackstone, Mass.
Dodge, Hazel May Block Island, R. I.
Dodge, Rena Belle 12 Oak St., Providence, R. I.
Eddy, Ethel Elizabeth 68 Peck St., Attleboro, Mass.
Flood, Winifred Agnes 107 Washington St., Central Falls, R. I.
Flynn, Estella Patricia 907 Manton Ave., Providence, R. I.
Galeuzzi, Katherine Jennie 224 Atwells Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gerhard, Rosena Margaret 26 Prospect St., East Providence, R. I.
Keegan, Barbara Gabriel 13 Harriet St., Providence, R. I.
Leahy, Margaret Anne Metacom Ave., Bristol, R. I.
Mahan, Mary Zita 31 Jenks St., Central Falls, R. I.
Marrah, Annie 92 Division St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Martin, Annie Gildard (Cole) 8 Belmont St., Pawtucket, R. I.
McCardell, Rose Marie 49 Humboldt Ave., Providence, R. I.
McCormick, Marguerite Irene.. 333 Taunton Ave., E. Providence, R. I.
McGovern, Theresa Mary Blackstone, Mass.
McGrane, Mary Josephine 90 South St., Providence, R. I.
178 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
McGreevy, Edith Margaret 16 Hendrick St., Providence, R. I.
McNally, Jennie Loretta 39 Fallan Ave., Providence, R. I.
Meikle, Jeanie Burns 12 Narragansett Ave., Westerly, R. I.
Midgley, Emma Clare 259 Benefit St., Providence, R. I.
Pennington, Harriet Helme 295 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. 1.
Phelan, Julia Agnes 16 Chapel St., Newport, R. I.
Rogers, Evelyn May (Coates) 44 Dover St., Providence, R. I.
Rounds, Ethel Flora 32 North Ave., Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Shields, Mary Christine 192 Warren Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Slade, Nancy Mason Swansea, Mass.
Sullivan, Agnes 8 Bridge St., Newport, R. I.
Tally, Elizabeth Gertrude 28 Vernon St., Providence, R. I.
Tobin, Annie Marie Bristol, R. I.
Tobin, Elizabeth Ann Riverside, R. I.
Tripp, Esther Waterman 85 Maplewood Ave., Cranston, R. I.
Tutin, Kathleen 142 Blackstone St., Woonsocket, R. I.
White, Charlotte Emma 188 North Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Atkinson, Emma Bradford Rehoboth, Mass.
Bliven, Claire 94 Main St., Westerly, R. I.
Brady, Anna Evangeline 393 Weeden St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Buchart, Syvilla Regina 275 Globe St., Providence, R. I.
Burns, Bessie Genevieve- 12 Norwich Ave., Providence, R. I.
Chappell, Grace Miriam R. F. D., Rehoboth, Mass.
Clifford, Johanna Leona 31 Grape St., Providence, R. I.
Cole, Elizabeth Frances 91 Dover St., Providence, R. I.
Crowe, Annie Louise 75 Dora St., Providence, R. I.
Deane, Cassie Inez 160 Adams St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Greene, Ruth 12 Osborne St., Providence, R. I.
Hill, Pauline Beatrice 411 Friendship St., Providence, R. I.
Jenckes, Helen Stanley 67 Laura St., Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Mary Christina 196 Linwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
*McGilvrey, Cynthia Helen
Miller, Pearl F. (Crawford) . .3200 Pawtucket Ave., East Prov., R. I.
O'Reilly, Teresa Marie 971 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Rice, Ella Paula Maria 82 Centre St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Sweeney, Katherine Loretta 8 Wellington St., Providence, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN JUNE, 1907.
Bannon, Margaret Alice 32 Bagley St., Central Falls, R. I.
Brooks, Ruth 23 Mary Ave., East Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 179
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Broome, Grace Esther 295 Pawtucket Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Brown, Grace Emily (Abbott) Andover, Mass.
Fales, Bertha Dunham (Cook) Bristol, R. I.
Fales, Florence Louise 483 High St., Central Falls, R. I.
Hall, Helen 14 Angle St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Lawton, Nellie Estelle 179 High St., Pawtucket. R. I.
Mather, Sarah Brownson 236 Lockwood St., Providence, R. I.
Matteson, Marion Eudora 140 Lafayette St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Mattison, Ethel Champlin. .... 183 Armington St., Edgewood, R. I.
McKenna, Agnese Regina 39 Bainbridge Ave., Providence, R. I.
Merewether, Abby Louise (White) 11 Arch St., Providence, R. I.
Miller, Jessie Denham 88 Spring St., Pawtucket, R. I.
O'Connor, Clara Louise 27 Lawn Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Patterson, Bessie 169 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Smith, Georgianna 109 Massachusetts Ave.. Providence, R. I.
Stoddard, Jennie Winsor 7 Division St., Newport, R. I.
Wallace, Alice Lonez 475 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Wilmarth, Elsie Mae Attleboro Falls, Mass.
A very, Nellie Mary Groton, Conn.
Bransfield, Annie Regina 4 George St., Westerly, R. I.
Briggs, Geneva Maude Barton's Corner, East Greenwich, R. I.
Butler, Alice Frances Berkeley, Cumberland, R. I.
Colvin, Jessie Jones 24 Whipple Ave., Arlington, R. I.
Creighton, Mary Martha Blackstone, Mass.
Davis, Mary Antoinette Maplewood, N. J.
Eaton, Helen 50 Forest St., Providence, R. I.
Edwards, Fannie Ella Ashaway, Hopkinton, R. I.
Finn, Catherine Gertrude 34 Parker St., Central Falls, R. I.
Healey, Mary Loretta 37 Cobb St., East Providence, R. I.
Heck, Mary Lucia 14 Carpenter St.. Providence, R. I.
Hillman, Linda Matilda 89 Holman St., Attleboro, Mass.
Hunt, Carrie Lavinia 603 Angell St., Providence, R. I.
James, Marcia Helen Wood Lafayette, R. I.
Murray, Anna Veracondia King St., Pontiac, R. I.
Xissen, Clara Christine Dorothea 6 Lincoln St.. Newport, R. I.
Page, Mattie Maybel 162 Webster Ave., Providence, R. I.
Palmer, Mary Eleanor 1536 Cranston St., Cranston, R. I.
Rogers, Estella Ray Davisville, North Kingstown, R. I.
Sherman, Lillian Maria Harrisville, R. I.
Sullivan, Teresa Eligius 488 Thames St.. Newport. R. I.
i8o RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Taber, Jessie Maud 383 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Vars, Effie Hannah Niantic, R. I.
Wood, Florence Shoers Leonard's Corner, East Providence, R. I.
Anthony, Sarah Talbot .Ruggles Ave., Newport, R. I.
Bosworth, Ethel J. (Hooper).. 487 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cristy, Esther Gilbert 102 Wayland Ave., Providence, R. I.
Dean, Katherine Gertrude 36 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Greene, Marguerite Lillibridge 36 Providence St., Providence, R. I.
Kent, Marjorie 125 Adelaide Ave., Providence, R. I.
Lewis, Caroline La Vaughn 148 Holden St., Providence, R. I.
Munnegle, Bessie Josephine 19 Livingstone St., Providence, R. J.
Pettis, Helen Bissell 55 Waterman St., Providence, R. I.
Watts, Annie May Cynthia 78 Hillwood Ave., Arlington, R. I.
Adams, Elizabeth Frances 5 Whetmore St., Central Falls, R. I.
Aslin, Florence Mabel 23 Nebraska St., Providence, R. I.
Ballou, Lulu Beatrice 35 Rand St., Central Falls, R. I.
Barry, Ella Gertrude 57 Pine St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Blair, Eleanor Grover 65 Peace St., Providence, R. I.
Bowen, Marion Henry 38 Humboldt Ave., Providence, R. I.
Brady, Rosetta Clare 135 High St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Bransfield, Katherine Agnes 4 George St., Westerly, R. I.
Brown, Gladys Midclletown, R. I.
Buckley, Mary Camilla 22 Palmer St., Providence, R. I.
Burton, Belle 135 East George St., Providence, R. I.
Carry, Mabel Florence 298 Broadway, Newport, R. I.
Corbett, Mary Jane Mansfield, Mass.
Curren, Agnes Theresa 107 Calhoun Ave., Providence, R. I.
Dorchester, Hope Sutherland 31 Stanwood St., Providence, R. I.
Driscoll, Annie Ellyn 303 High St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Dwyer, Mary Letitia Dresser St., Newport, R. I.
Finn, Mary Anna , 11 Whittenton St., Taunton, Mass.
Flavin, Lillian Agnes 41 High St., Mansfield, Mass.
Gleason, Margaret Clementine 122 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
Goodwin, Susan Elizabeth 86 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gormley, Katherine Louise. .. .1745 Westminster St., Providence, R. I.
Hall. Mildred Waldo 42 Glenham St., Providence, R. I.
Hill, Esther Frances East Providence Centre, R. I.
Hughes, Anna Louise Miriam 77 Franklin St., Bristol, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 181
NAME. K O. ADDRESS.
Hurley, Adelaide Proctor 45 Elmdale Ave., Providence, R. I.
Jackowitz, Annie Catherine 269 Martin St., East Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Jessie Gertrude Montclair, N. J.
Kenyon, Maybell Constance Hopkinton, R. I.
Kerr, Josephine Rose 568 Wood St., Bristol, R.
Larkin, Charlotte Stillman. Ashaway, R.
Lindsay, Ethel Louise 62 Camp St., Providence, R.
MacLellan, Ella Grace Y. W. C. A, Providence, R.
McCabe, Margaret Isabelle Blackstone, Mas .
McElroy, Alice Rosalie 256 Wickenden St., Providence, R.
McKenzie, Margaret Jane North Smithfield, R.
McTernan, Mary Frances 61 Providence St., Providence, R.
Mee, Delia Veronica 28 Cherry St., Woonsocket, R.
Nolan, Frances Gertrude 294 Douglas Ave., Providence, R. I.
O'Donnell, Annie Regina 159 High St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Parker, Florence Adele 59 Doane St., Cranston, R. I.
Payne, Ethel Whipple Chamberlain 306 High St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Peckham, Edith May 120 Commonwealth Ave., Attleboro, Mass.
Pickering, Sara Leona Blackstone, Mass.
Reilly, Mary Louise 231 Federal St., Providence, R. I.
Rigney, Mary Viola Allenton, North Kingstown, R. I.
Robbins, Eva Frances 95 Clarence St., Auburn, R. I.
Roche, Mary Louise Pierce St., Westerly, R. I.
Rose, Annie Rebecca.. 120 Commonwealth Ave., Attleboro Falls, Mass.
Schwab, Augusta Ernestine 165 Calhoun Ave., Providence, R. I.
Stedman, Bertha May 122 Pleasant St., Providence, R. I.
Stewart, Marion Frances Ashton, Cumberland, R. I.
Tracy, Katherine Matilda 476 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Vanier, Ella Louise 32 Union St., Attleboro, Mass.
Waters, Susan Rebecca 54 Waller St., Providence, R. I.
West, Helen Josephine 95 Roanoke St., Providence, R. I.
Williams, Ida Arlein 675 North Broadway, East Providence, R. I.
Barnes, Florence Mendon Road, Ashton, R. I.
Beebe, Clara Haskell 125 High St., Perth Amboy, N. J.
Bliss, Mildred Emily R. F. D. No. 1, Attleboro, Mass.
Bray, Mercy 48 Anthony Ave., Pawtucket, R.
Brodie, Wilhelmina Rutherford 13 West St., Westerly, R.
Bryans, Maud Ervella West Barrington. R.
Childs, Cora 11 Sefton Drive, Edgewood, R.
Clark, Eugene Ralph Lonsdale, R.
182 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Currie, Clara Jane 10 Holden St., Attleboro, Mass.
Dailey, Helen Clotilde 485 Park Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
Dyer, Mary Theresa 78 Freeborn Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Eldred, Jennie May 3 Chase St., Westerly, R. I.
Giblin, Teresa Dorothy .... Narragansett Terrace, Crescent Park, R. I.
Greene, Emily Bennett 7 School St., Westerly, R. 1.
Hall, Florence Blanche 48 High St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Jackowitz, Elizabeth Agnes 269 Martin St., East Providence, R.
Jackson, Almira Gertrude Centreville, Warwick, R.
Jenks, Avis Browning 22 Eighth St., Providence, R.
Kennedy, Grace Agnes 26 Cypress St., Providence, R.
McCoart, Mary Veronica 8 Linden Ave., Rumford, R.
McCormick, Genevieve Maria 51 Cushman St., Pawtucket, R.
Mclnerney, Anna Louise 15 Francis Ave., Auburn, R.
McNeal, Kathleen Genevieve 225 East Ave., Pawtucket, R.
Page, Lillian Adeline 52 Wood St., Providence, R.
Palmer, Cecile Cassius East Greenwich, R. I.
Phillips, May Adalyn 279 George St., Providence, R. I.
Searle, Edna Louise Oaklawn, R. I.
Steere, Adah Evelyn Harmony, R. I.
Stone, Ida Isabel 73 Mitchell St., Providence, R. I.
Tracy, Helen Frances 476 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Tully, Sara Gertrude 47 Park St., Providence, R. I.
Watrous, Mildred Lavergne Hope Valley, Hopkinton, R. I.
Webber, Elizabeth Mary Monroe Centre, Maine
West, Sara Veronica 258 California Ave., Providence, R. I.
Whaley, Grace Catherine 16 Woodbine St., Providence, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN JUNE, 1909.
Angell, Lucia Edna 42 Arch St., Providence, R. I.
Beebe, Lila Adeline 87 Dartmouth Ave., Providence, R. I.
Bowen, Mary Agnes 984 Main St., Worcester, Mass.
Browne, Marion Blanchard 48 Lyon St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Conley, Deborah Rose Block Island, R. I.
Corrigan, Eleanor Genevieve Pawtucket, R. I.
Fallen, Elizabeth Leonie 34 Potter St., Pawtucket, R. T.
King, Helen Swinburne 11 Clinton Ave., Newport, R. I.
McVay, Alice Geraldine 174 Summit St., Pawtucket, R. I.
O'Connor, Olive Rossiter 81 Evergreen St., Providence, R. I.
Ruoff, Dorothea Barbara 27 Amy St., Providence, R. I.
Sawyer, Annie Eastwood Shawomet Beach, R. I.
Speers, Margaret Jane 22 Summer St., Newport, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 183
NAME. ' P. O. ADDRESS.
Tuckef, Ethel Aldrich Kingston, R. I.
Walsh, Mary Agnes 21 Mill St., Newport, R. I.
Agnew, Kathryn Frances 21 Gibbs Ave., Newport, R. I.
Bailey, Helen Gertrude Swansea, Mass.
Barry, Charlotte Agnes 60 East Manning St., Providence, R.
Bixby, Gladys Mabelle 46 Stanwood St., Providence, R.
Bode, Gertrude Elizabeth 33 Ridge St., Providence, R.
Brodie, Mary Jane Campbell Westerly, R.
Brooks, May Irene Ashton, Cumberland, R.
Burges, Marion Lilleth Norwood, Warwick, R.
Carroll, Fannie Catherine 131 Tockwotton St., Providence, R.
Cook, Cora May Adams 34 Dean St, Woonsocket, R.
Crawshaw, Maye Louise 37 Porter St., Taunton, Mass.
Cronin, Ethel Carter 25 Newcornb Place, Taunton, Mass.
Devanney, Teresa Joanna 79 Brook St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Dillon, Agnes Margaret 38 Walling St., Providence, R. I.
Donovan, Katherine Pauline 20 Bacheller's Court, Newport, R. I.
Fitton, Gertrude Margaret 477 Broadway, Pawtucket, R. I.
Gallup, Alice May East Street, Mansfield, Mass.
Gilmore, Erastine Bright 14 Perrin St., Attleboro, Mass.
Harrington, Alice Mary 14 Calvert St., Newport, R. I.
Holt, Gertrude Marguerite 100 Almy St., Providence, R. I.
Jenckes, Eliza May Centredale, R. I.
Jones, Melissa Anne 291 Spring St., Newport, R. I.
Kelly, Winifred Elizabeth .... 10 Prospect St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Kennedy, Mary Cecilia 549 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
King, Marguerite Williams Mystic, Conn.
Knight, Minnie Edna 68 Lloyd Ave., Providence, R. I.
Lillibridge, Marjorie Vinal 46 Doyle Ave. Providence, R. I.
Lincoln, Clara Louise 30 Church St., North Attleboro, Mass.
Lonergan, Genevieve Rose Joyce St., Warren, R. I.
Lundin, Esther 164 Massachusetts Ave., Providence, R. I.
MacLellan, Rowena 87 John St., Newport, R. I.
Manchester, Myra Louise Tiverton, R. I.
McCartin, Ellen Theresa 441 Fountain St., Providence, R. I.
McKivergan, Anna Kathryn 123 Atlantic Ave., Providence, R. I.
Moreau, Blanche Albina 4 Fletcher St., Central Falls, R. I.
Murray, Katharine Regina 165 Pine St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Nelson, Nellie May 13 Halsey St., Providence, R. I.
Nickerson, Irene Mabel 71 Princeton Ave., Providence, R. I.
184 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. p. Q. ADDRESS.
O'Neill, Katharine Gertrude 201 Oakland Ave., Providence, R. I.
O'Reilly, Helen Regina 971 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Phillips, Jennie Winchester Allenton, North Kingstown, R. I.
Prentiss, Inez 34 Moulton St., North Weymouth, Mass.
Purdy, Lelia Jane 148 Cottage St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Rawson, Ethel Almira 134 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
Regan, Alice Veronica 12 Russell St., Taunton, Mass.
Ryan, Grace Marguerite 441 Broad St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Schwarz, Bessie Rogers 24 Tilley Ave., Newport, R. I.
Sherwood, Carrie Grace 19 Hay ward St., Attleboro, Mass.
Sullivan, Kathryn Ursula 488 Thames St., Newport, R. I.
Sullivan, Margaret Pickett 17 Burnside Ave., Newport, R. I,
Sullivan, Mary Burke 25 Carey St., Newport, R. I.
Teasdale, Gladys Minnie Ellis Road, Attleboro, Mass.
Tillson, Leila Amelia 5 Perrin St., Attleboro, Mass.
Tinkham, Marian Lois Warren, R. I.
Warren, Gertrude Louise Blackstone, Mass.
Wetherell, Hannah Sylvina 4 Wesley St., Newport, R. I.
Wheeler, Laura Kempton 125 Ingell St., Taunton, Mass.
Whiteknact, Emma Grace 114 Tremont St., Central Falls, R. I.
SENIOR A CLASS JANUARY 28, 1910.
Alger, Anna Mary 23 Brinly St., Newport, R. I.
Baker, Edith Maywood 101 Aldrich St., Providence, R. I.
Barney, Susan Hammond 20 Dartmouth Ave., Providence, R. I.
Barry, Genevieve Thomas 60 East Manning St., Providence, R. I.
Brennan, Mary Martha 75 Abbott St., Providence, R. I.
Burdick, Edith Emily Pawcatuck, Stonington, Conn.
Carr, Louise Cory .Jamestown, R. I.
Carroll, Elizabeth Gertrude 658 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R.
Clarke, Martina Elizabeth 104 Camp St., Providence, R.
Crawford, Lillian Bell 46 Clarendon St., Auburn, R.
Cronin, Catherine Margaret 11 Handy St., Providence, R.
Crossley, Marion Augusta 1412 Broad St., Providence, R.
Disley, Florence Gertrude 911 Smith St., Providence, R.
Donahue, Elizabeth Ryder 67 Rochambeau Ave., Providence, R.
Dunn, Sarah Veronica 127 Vinton St., Providence, R. I.
Ekstrom, Agnes Hilda Norwood, R. I.
Ells, Mary Victoria 12 John St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Fisher, Goldina Mabel 263 Benefit St., Providence, R. I.
Five, Elsie Mary 582 South Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Foley, Katharine Louise 262 Point St., Providence, R. I.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 185
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Gardner, Mary Nettie 120 Transit St., Providence, R. I.
Griswold, Clara Elizabeth 72 Carpenter St., East Providence, R. I.
Hager, Grace Evelyn 700 Park Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Harrington, Mary Angela 415 Wickenden St., Providence, R. I.
Hart, Jennie Frances 85 Vine St., East Providence, R. I.
Healey, Matilda Gertrude 38 Market St, Warren, R. I.
Hofeditz, Mary Louise 51 Oxford St., Providence, R. I.
Howard, Marie Regina 165 Holden St., Providence, R. I.
Kelly, Katherine Helen 291 Pine St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Kimball, Harriet Hawley Simmonsville, Johnston, R. I.
King, Katherine Theresa 80 Dover St., Providence, R. I.
Lovell, Millicent Frances .489 East Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Mailloux, Georgiana Emma 832 Elm St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Martin, Agnes Bruce 64 Crescent St., Providence, R. I.
Maver, Marie Stella 164 Pond St., Providence, R. I.
McEvoy, Alice Helena 181 Woodward Road, Providence, R. I.
McGrath, Annie Irene 101 North Main St., Woonsocket, R. I.
McHugh, Gertrude Elizabeth 6 Bingham St., Providence, R. I.
McMahon, Mary Perpetua 190 North Bend St., Pawtucket, R. I.
McVay, Helen Barbara 174 Summit St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Meegan, Marion Christina 21 Barstow St., Providence, R. I.
Miller, Gertrude Charlotte 80 Seymour St., Providence, R. I.
Natke, Ethel May 159 Lonsdale Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Norris, Charlotte Elizabeth 18 Moss St, Westerly, R. I.
O'Brien, Marian Frances 15 Marrin St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Peckham, Annie Laurie Winnibel. . .91 Green End Ave., Newport, R. I.
Robertson, Margaret Isabel 7 Pacific St., Central Falls, R. I.
Rowen, Mar}' Margaret 609 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Ryan, Frances Augusta 441 Broad St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Salisbury, Beatrice Elthea 94 Andem St., Providence, R. I.
Sanford,.Ella Wilson 7 Congdon Ave., Newport, R. I.
Shea, Mary Elizabeth 82 Blackball St, New London, Conn.
Stucker, Alice Estelle 25 Hoyle St.. Providence, R. I.
Sullivan, Gertrude 8 Bridge St, Newport, R. I.
Sullivan, Madeleine Teresa 54 Vernon St., Providence, R. I.
Sweers, May Rose Lawrence 521 Broad St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Wilcox, Florence Eveline Noank, Conn.
Woodman, Hazel Whittier 75 Updike St., Providence. R. I.
Young, Bessie Watson. 23 Pomona Ave., Providence, R. I.
Young, Mildred 189 Central St, Central Falls, R. I.
SENIOR A CLASS JUNE 24, 1910.
Abrams, Esther Julia 215 Meeting St, Providence, R. I.
Beebe, Natalie 124 High St, Perth Amboy, N. J.
Blessing, Irene Mercy 56 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
Brown, Catherine Laurentia 34 Zone St., Providence, R. I.
1 86 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
*Brown, Cora West Kingston, R. I.
Burns, Janet Park 1133 Cranston St., Arlington, R. I.
Chaimplin, Eva May Teresa Exeter Hill, R. I.
Cheetham, Florence Mercedes 231 Division St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Connon, Isabella Mary 154 Laban St., Providence, R. I.
Curry, Mary Josephine 34 Rosedale St., Providence, R. I.
Donovan, Mary Eleanor 68 Larch St., Providence, R. I.
Dykes, Margaret Black 887 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Fallon, Catherine Virginia 34 Potter St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Fitzpatrick, Alice Melissa Arkwright, R. I.
Gillette, Mary Adelaide 1367 Westminster St., Providence, R. I
Gillette, Sarah Elizabeth 1367 Westminster St., Providence, R. I.
Hodnett, Catherine Theresa 18 Winsor St., Providence, R. I.
Huntley, Carrie Belle 217 Main St., Claremont, N. H.
Jackson, Lelia Catherine Deon 43 Hall Ave., Newport, R. I.
Kelcher, Mary Elizabeth 167 West Broad St., Westerly, R. I.
Kiernan, Marie Celestine 213 Carpenter St., Providence, R. I
Lane, Edith May Warwick, R. I.
Long, Mary Elizabeth 13 Summer St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Lyons, Kathryn Agnes 678 Atwells Ave., Providence, R. I.
McGair, Mary 22 Harriet St., Providence, R. I.
McKenna, Lucy Cecilia 132 Hudson St., Providence, R. I.
Mason, Edith Ray Wickford, North Kingstown, R. I.
Moore, Edna Josephine 31 Langdon St., Providence, R. I.
Mulvey, Anna Eleanor 28 Marlborough Ave., Providence, R. I.
Osborne, Ruth Holden 35 Greene St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Pike, Florence Orlanda 124 Camp St., Providence, R. I.
Reardon, Catherine Agnes 269 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
*Round, Clarissa Beatrice Anthony, R. I.
Saunders, Ethel Justine Lafayette, R. I.
Shannon, May Alicia Wakefield, R. I.
Shapleigh, Rachel Ayers 42 Washington St., East Milton, Mass.
Steere, Emily Annie 127 Bridgham St., Providence, R. I.
Stewart, Marion Kilton 122 Rochambeau Ave., Providence, R. I
Toolin, Martina Madeline Cowesett, Warwick, R. I.
Williams, Ruth Isabelle 72 Marshall St., Providence, R. I.
Wood, Eleanor Townsend 48 Candace St., Providence, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN SENIOR CLASS JUNE 24, 1910.
Elaine, Jessie May 445 Wellington Ave., Auburn, R. I.
Brereton, Alice Eleanor 433 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Douglas, Agnes May Edwina 599 Smith St., Providence, R. I.
Gleason, Nellie Mabel 10 Bliss Road, Newport, R. I.
Hazard, Gwendoline Gladys ...... 349 Elmwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
Johnson, Pearl Minette 298 California Ave., Providence, R. I.
Lovett, Pearl Margaret Tennessee Crompton, R. I.
Palmer, Nellie Winchester Wakefield, R. I.
Plummer, Ethel Collins 11 Thurston Ave., Newport, R. I.
Waite, Annie Louise 177 Linwood Ave., Providence, R. I.
Mowry, Edna 269 Carrington Ave., Woonsocket, R. I.
O'Connor, Mary Frances Tiverton, R. I.
* Withdrawn from school during the past year.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 187
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
SENIOR A CLASS JANUARY, 1911.
Atkinson, Mabel Laura Rehoboth, Mass.
Ballard, Elizabeth Irene 25 Ridge St., Providence, R. I.
Banigan, Nellie May 11 Eleventh St., Providence, R. I.
Barbour, Grace Irene 90 Ford St., Providence, R. I.
Barnes, Lydia May Mendon Road, Ashton, R. I.
Bartlett, Gladys Isora Nasonville, R. I.
Bourne, Bernice Beatrice 10 Lloyd Ave., Phillipsdale, R. I.
Bourne, Lottie Emma 10 Lloyd Ave., Phillipsdale, R. I.
Bowen, Elsie Elizabeth R. F. D. No. 4, Attleboro, Mass.
Boylan, Mary Frances 110 Donelson St., Providence, R. I.
Brennan, Magdalene Cecelia Peace Dale, R. I.
Buchanan, Agnes 50 Webster St., Newport, R. I.
Campbell, Grace Edna 617 Broadway, Pawtucket, R. I.
Carroll, Helen Elizabeth 679 Cranston St., Providence, R. I.
Carroll, May Louise 772 Hope St., Providence, R. I.
Connell, Bertha Marguerite 889 Cranston St., Arlington, R. I.
Coutanche, Agnes Cecelia 335 Williams St, Providence, R. I.
Coyne, Jane Agatha 1632 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cummiskey, Margaret Gertrude Alexis Crompton, R. I.
Cummiskey, Monica Ellen Aurelia Crompton, R. I.
Dennis, Anna Lockwood. .2938 Pawtucket Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Donovan, Agnes Helen 16 Rocket St., Westerly, R. I.
Doran, Frances Andrea 32 Jenkins St., Providence, R. I.
Dring, Jane Brennan 24 Old Beach Road, Newport, R. I.
Farley, Agnes Christina M 178 Laurel Hill Ave., Providence, R. I.
Farrell, Mary Frances Arkwright, Coventry, R. I.
Gallagher, Sarah Ignatia 874 Branch Ave., Providence, R. I.
Galvin, Katherine Louise East Greenwich, R. I.
Garrity_, Elizabeth Catherine 82 Main St., Blackstone, Mass.
Gaskin, Mary Lucina 202 High St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Graham, Helen Ruth 440 West Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hammarlund, Edith Christina. .182 Sutton Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Harris, Maud Gwendolyn. .345 Waterman Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Hawkins, Mildred Louise 52 Hancock St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Hoffman, Ruth Eleanor Connor Lyndonville, Vermont.
Holton, Annie 44 Winthrop Ave., Providence, R. I.
Kelley, Margaret Frances 212 Bay State, Taunton, Mass.
Leddy, Mary Imelda ' 38 Franklin St., Newport, R. I.
McCarthy, Christine Agnes 13 Adams St., Taunton, Mass.
Mitchell, Jennette Harrison 24 Lawn Ave., Pawtuxet, R. I.
Monahan, Catherine Edwina 223 Wickenden St., Providence, R. I.
Moody, Bessie Arabelle 20 Hancock St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Mulligan, Helen Marguerite 71 Beaufort St., Providence, R. I.
O'Connor, Alice Barbara. . .290 Mineral Spring Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
O'Neil, Alice Florence 348 Public St., Providence, R. I.
O'Neil, Bertha Kathryn 164 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Peckham, Barbara Carlotta 9 Tilley Ave., Newport, R. I.
Perry, Irma Linda 336 Benefit St., Providence, R. I.
Poland, Agnes Frances 27 Langdon St., Providence, R. I.
Quinn, Frances Margaret 64 Oak St. Providence, R. I.
Rounds, Gertrude Emma R. F. D. No. 1.. Attleboro, Mass.
1 88 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
NAME. P. O. ADDRESS.
Sawtelle, Ruth Rosamond Blackstone, Mass.
Sherwood, Vera Hazel 19 Hay ward St., Attleboro, Mass.
Shippee, Marion Elwood East Greenwich, R. I.
Smith, Bertha Ellis 15 Smith St., Valley Falls, R. I.
Smith, Helen Gertrude 89 Kenyon St., Providence, R. I.
Smith, Lucy Katherine 48 Anthony St., East Providence, R. I.
Taylor, Hulda May Phenix, R. I.
Thornton, Grace Eliza 11 Squanto St., Providence, R. I.
Totten, Martha Jane 51 Lonsdale Ave., Pawtucket, R. I.
Urquhart, Christine McDonald Ledge Road, Newport, R. I.
Williams, Gladys Brown 100 Morris Ave., Providence, R. I.
SENIOR A CLASS JUNE 25, 1911.
Budlong, Florence Edith Norwood, R. I.
Carmody, Helen Julia Rose 343 Broadway, Providence, R. I.
Carr, Margaret Mary 149 Jewett St. Providence, R. I.
Chapman, Irene Lucy 191 Carpenter St., Providence, R. I.
Cotter, Helen Josephine 721 Potter Ave., Providence, R. I.
Cunningham, Delia Irene 11 Avon St., Providence, R. I.
Curran, Gertrude Louise 10 Burnside St., Providence, R. I.
Daley, Catherine Agnes Uxbridge, Mass.
Deahy, Elizabeth Cecelia 58 Barton St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Devlin, Rose Genevieve 482 Douglas Ave., Providence, R. I.
Donelly, Mary Irene 184 North Bend St., Pawtucket, R. I.
Eddy, Mabel Hannah 15 Forest St., Taunton Mass.
Ennis, Zella Corrinne 3 Chestnut St., Westerly, R. I.
Fitzpatrick, Anna Frances 155 Arthur Ave., Providence, R. I.
Gaynor, Margaret Frances 21 Second St., Attleboro, Mass.
Gray, Pauline Margaret 229 Gano St., Providence, R. I.
Greenwood, Bessie 499 Broad St., Lonsdale, R. I.
Hayes, Margaret Mary 73 Armstrong Ave., Providence, R. I.
Jordan, Emma Mae Danielson, Conn.
Lee, Ida Noble 1 Whittemore Place, Providence, R. I.
Lillibridge, Florence Minnette Burnside Ave., Attleboro, Mass.
Lynch, Madge Frances 260 Point St., Providence, R. I.
McCrystal, Sadie Gertrude Natick, R. I.
McGovern, Anna Loretta Cecelia 27 Pierce St., Providence, R. I.
McManus, Mary Catherine 144 Prairie Ave., Providence, R. I.
Mee, Ann Evangelist 28 Cherry St., Woonsocket, R. I.
Moulton, Sarah Penelope 518 Public St., Providence, R. I.
Neary, Gertrude Irene 104 Union Ave., Providence, R. I.
Nowell, Beatrix Eleanor 7 Washburn St., Providence, R. I.
O'Brien, Annie Louise Mulberry St., Warren, R. I.
O'Brien, Nora Cecelia 59 Dartmouth Ave., Providence, R. I.
O'Sullivan, Katherine Elizabeth 23 Park St., Taunton, Mass.
Read, Margaret Isabel 66 Dunedin St., Arlington, R. I.
Reynolds, Grace Garland 85 Ford St., Providence, R. I.
Rockwell, Marguerite Ross 7 Pemberton St., Providence, R. I.
Sullivan, Elizabeth Regina....52 Taunton Ave., East Providence, R. I.
Thornton, Alice Waterman 44 Bridgham St., Providence, R. T.
Tucker, Marguerite Grace 45 Baker St., Providence, R. I.
Wickett, Harriet Smith Cynthia Howard, R. I.
KINDERGARTEN SENIOR CLASS JANUARY 27, 1911.
Fiske, Georgia Frances 166 George St., Providence, R. T.
Selleck, Marjorie Louise 68 Mendon Road, Cumberland Hill, R. I.
REV. DANIEL GOODWIN,
Memories of the Normal School at
Bristol, R. I.
BY MRS. S. S. DRURY (HANNAH W. GOODWIN).
In the year 1854, I entered the Rhode Island State Normal
School, which at that time held its sessions in the lecture
room of the Second Universalist Church on Broad street in
Providence. Mr. Dana P. Colburn, educated in Normal
School of Framingham, Massachusetts, was principal and
Mr. Arthur Sumner, of Cambridge, Masaschusetts, his assist-
ant, who, however, left after a few months and I, having had
some previous experience in a country district school, became
pupil teacher. The next year I was made a regular assistant,
as were two other previous pupils, Miss Emma Brown and
Miss Annie Saunders, afterwards Mrs. Robert Fielding of
the Fielding & Chase Girls' Private School of Providence.
In those days Brown University was a strong supporter of
the Normal School. President Sears often gave addresses.
Prof. James Angell was a constant lecturer, and Prof. S. S.
Greene for several terms taught regularly in English grammar.
But in 1857, everything was altered by the removal of the
school to Bristol. The legislature made this change, probably,
through the strong wish of some of its country members
that all of the small towns of the State might come under the
influence of the "academic atmosphere,'' which the Normal
School was supposed to spread. Bristol was the place chosen.
190 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
largely, I think, because it was the home of Dr. Thomas
Shepard, pastor of the First Congregational Church, and leader
in every sort of educational movement in the State, as well
as in his own town. Indeed Dr. Shepard had taken such a
lively interest in the school and had admired so heartily Mr.
Colburn's methods of teaching, that while the school was still
in Providence, he had sent one of his daughters to be under
Mr. Colburn's instruction, although she had no intention of
herself becoming a teacher. On leaving Providence the
school lost Miss Brown and Miss Saunders from its teaching
force, but their place was taken by my brother, Daniel Goodwin,
who very soon afterward became an Episcopal clergyman, but
who had at that time only just graduated from Brown Univer-
sity. When we came to Bristol in September, 1857, the
Congregationalists had recently moved into a new stone church
and the town had acquired their old, white steepled building for
a town hall, which they now divided into two stories, in order
to give us the upper half for a school room. I remember
though, that the place was not quite ready for us when we
were ready to begin, so the town offered us the Court House, in
which we started to teach, only to be driven out by the County
Court itself wanting to sit there, it being the first Monday in
September. At last we took shelter in the abandoned Metho-
dist Church, at that time standing on the corner of the common,
and I remember my chagrin at finding myself standing in a tall,
old pulpit teaching geography, while in a pew beneath me and
listening to my instruction, sat the august Dr. Shepard.
In a letter to the Providence Evening Press written by one
of the teachers, two years later, October, 1857, I find the
following report :
"The Autumn term of the State Normal School has now
reached the middle of the session with larger numbers than at
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 191
any previous time since its removal to Bristol. That is not
a little remarkable, considering the past history of the school.
The number of young gentlemen attending the present session
is over twenty, quite equal to that of the young ladies. Thus
a large class of our State teachers is being reached, which was
hardly touched while the Normal School was in Providence.
This infusion of masculine spirit has been marked by the
organization of a baseball club, and a Literary Society in
connection with the school."
For those days of difficult travel, when only three trains
a day ran between Bristol and Providence, we had pupils
from a wide range of country. There were Miss Griffith and
Mr. Knowles and the Stantons, two sisters and two brothers,
from Charlestown in the South County, the Ballou's from
Woonsocket and three Goodwins from Mansfield, Massachu-
setts, one of whom, Edward, left school when he was only
eighteen years old to go to war and to give his life for his
country. From Fall River there were also several young
men, among them I remember particularly Mr. Peleg Harrison,
who has lately sent me a copy of his most interesting work,
"The Stars and Stripes and other American Flags."
From Portsmouth on ''The Island" came George Coggeshall,
who has since become a clergyman, and Miss Mary Emery,
afterwards Mrs. Twing, well known for her missionary
journeys around the world. From Bristol, we had, naturally,
many pupils, of whom Miss Ellen R. Luther, a brilliant mathe-
matician, was soon chosen as third assistant. As far as my
memory serves me, my brother, Mr. Goodwin, had the charge
of the Literature and Elocution and several courses of lectures
on general topics; for instance: one week he talked about the
various styles of Greek architecture and made the scholars
find practical illustrations of them in the streets of Bristol.
192 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
For my part, it seems to me that I was given whatever the
others did not want, a little mathematics, some history, and
geography; now and then a class in Zoology, in the interests
of which I had an aquarium, and in botany, that sometimes
continued its meetings in the woods and pastures outside
the town. I remember that on one of these expeditions
Mr. Horatio Knowles discovered that most rare plant, a white
The head of the school, Mr. Colburn, had written a series of
three common school arithmetics, much in vogue in that day.
Mathematics was his subject, and especially he was interested
in discovering methods for making children understand easily
and naturally the ordinary bugbears of vulgar fractions. In
this direction he was indeed a master. He had an unusual
talent, too, for rousing enthusiasm and for making even the
dullest pupil feel that to be a schoolmaster was to be one of the
kings of the world. Even though it is more than fifty years
ago I have never forgotten the inspiration of his Tuesday
afternoon lectures on the theory and practice of teaching.
Neither have I forgotten the late winter's afternoon, it was
the 1 5th of December, 1859, when I heard the news that
Mr. Colburn had been thrown from his horse and instantly
killed. As he had been the life of the school in his lifetime,
so the school suffered its greatest loss in his death.
Mr. Colburn's place was filled for a few months by my
brother, Mr. Goodwin, who had previously left the school to
study theology and when he was obliged to go back to the
Seminary in New York, I was principal of the school for a
very short time, until in the spring of 1860, Mr. Joshua Kendall
arrived and held the position until the school was discontinued
in 1865. But before this time in 1863, I had myself left the
school to be married to Dr. Samuel L. Drury of Bristol, where
MRS. S. S. DRURY.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 193
I have lived ever since. My place was taken by Miss Ellen
LeGro from New Hampshire. One event which happened
before I left, I remember with great distinctness it was the
tenth anniversary of the founding of the school, held in
September, 1862, in the Congregational Church, in Bristol.
Although it was in the midst of war time, and many young
men were leaving school to join the army, they came back from
camp that day to say goodbye, as well as other alumni from the
peaceful professions, and my brother by that time rector of a
church in Bangor, Maine, came too, and delivered a stirring
address on "The War as a Teacher."
Probably the war was one of the reasons why after this
time the school gradually dwindled. Bristol had always been
too difficult of approach for any large number of pupils to
find it convenient and, I have said before, in 1865, the school
was temporarily given up, but a school which had had the
advantage of such patronage as Dr. Shepard's and such teach-
ing as Mr. Colburn's cannot soon be forgotten.
The Rhode Island Normal School
Fifteen years after the first class graduated from the Rhode
Island Normal School the Alumni Association was formed;
it was the outcome of a meeting of graduates in the hall of the
Young Men's Christian Association in Providence, on Oct.
28, 1887, when addresses were made by Dr. Morgan, then
Principal of the school, former Principal Greenough, and
Organization was effected in the choice of Arthur W. Brown,
72, as President, Sarah Marble, 72, as Vice-President, and
Susanna Young, '85 (now Mrs. Gushing), as Secretary-
Edwin A. Noyes, and John H. Bailey were appointed a
committee to draw up a constitution to be presented at the
The following year this committee reported and in accord-
ance therewith a constitution was adopted. Among those of
the Old Normal School present and taking part in the discus-
sion of its adoption was the late Judge Pardon S. Tillinghast,
of the Supreme Court of the State.
Almost from the date of its organization, the association
naturally took steps to promote the welfare of the school. Two
committees were created, one on Visitation and the other on
Natural History. The committee on Visitation was to keep
MRS. CHARLES HOWARD REMINGTON.
PRESIDENT ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. '94.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 195
in touch with the school and to report upon its work and its
needs, while the other was to solicit contributions to its
cabinets for Natural History.
Of the committees first named for these purposes, J. Lewis
Wightman, '82, and Valentine Almy, '90, *were chairmen
respectively. These committees proved valuable to both the
school and the Association.
Specimens and collections of value for the work in Natural
History were received from graduates and others Mrs. Alice
Locke Park, and Mrs. George E. Perkins, making notable
In 1895, in response to a suggestion of the committee on
Visitation, the following was adopted: "Resolved, That we,
graduates of the Rhode Island State Normal School, in grati-
tude to our Alma Mater for all she has done for us, present to
her a sum of money, the use of which shall hereafter be
A committee was appointed to receive contributions to the
fund which was placed in the hands of M. Lila Hurley, as
At the first meeting in the new building, in October, 1898,
a committee was appointed to suggest to what purpose the
fund then, amounting to about $300, should be applied. In
accordance with their recommendations, it was voted to buy
suitable pictures to decorate the walls of the school library.
.Mabel C. Bragg, '89; E. A. Noyes, '78; M. Lila Hurley, '90;
and Mrs. James A. Nealy, '78, were authorized to make the
The Class of January, '78, bore the expense of filling one
of the spaces. A surplus of about $60 was devoted to the
purchase of casts for niches in the lower hall.
196 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Increasing interest in the Association marked the years as
they passed, and the first meeting in the new building in Oct.,
1898, was a notable one. The new building seemed a palace,
compared to the remodeled high school building which had
been the home of the Association since 1879.
The exercises were of a most interesting character, and the
list of speakers and guests included educators from all parts
of the State.
Previous to the opening of the annual session, a reception
was held in the library. Miss Joslin, as President was assisted
by Miss Marble, Honorary President, Governor and Mrs.
Dyer, and Commissioner Stockwell.
Besides those already named, other guests included Dr.
Emerson E. White, of Columbus, Ohio, Professor Will S.
Munroe, of Wakefield, Mass, and Dr. Ossian Lang, of New
The exercises were held in the study hall, Miss Joslin
presiding. Commissioner Stockwell welcomed the alumni to
the new building, and addresses were made by Governor Dyer,
Principal Gowing, former Principal Littlefield, and Superin-
tendent Tarbell of the Providence schools. The remainder of
the evening was given to an inspection of the building under
the direction of Chairman Kendrick and others of the Board
In 1899 the Normal Club was organized within the Alumni
Association, for literary study at the Normal School. An
account of its doings appears elsewhere in this volume.
Rhode Island State Normal School Alumni Association's
next meeting of note was held in the new building, on Novem-
ber 9, 1901, with an attendance of about 200 of the Alumni,
including three former principals, James C. Greenough, the
first principal; Hon. George A. Littlefield, and Frederick
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 197
Cowing, as well as the present principal, Mr. Charles S. Chapin.
At the conclusion of the business session, Miss Bragg
introduced Principal Charles S. Chapin, who made a brief, but
interesting address upon the "Relation of the Alumni to the
School," after which the Alumni and their guests were bidden
to the gymnasium where dinner awaited them. The records
state that this part of the program was unusually good, and
The President, Miss Bragg introduced Miss Sarah Marble
as Toastmistress. She was received with great applause and
fulfilled her duties with much grace and brilliancy. This
reunion was one of the largest in the history of the Association.
In the Fall of 1908 the officers and members of the Execu-
tive Committee of the Alumni Association met and planned
a meeting to be held November 6, 1908, to introduce to the
Alumni the new principal of the school, Mr. John L. Alger and
Mrs. Alger, who was Miss Edith Goodyear, one of the teachers
of the Normal Training School at its inception. Nearly three
hundred members of the association greeted the following
distinguished persons, Governor James H. Higgins, Dr. and
Airs. Ranger, Principal and Mrs. Alger, former principals
Greenough and Cowing, Mrs. Shedd and Miss Deming, who
was the honored guest of the evening.
In the absence of the President, Mrs. Helen Cheever, the
Vice-President, Mrs. Roby Cole Welch, '92, presided at the
dinner. Mr. Valentine Almy introduced the speakers, who
were the guests of the evening.
At the conclusion of Miss Deming's remarks, Mrs. Susannah
Young Cushing presented to Miss Deming a purse of gold as
a token of appreciation and love from the Association, the
majority of whom had felt her strong individuality.
198 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
The last meeting of the Association was held November 6,
1909, at the State Normal School, the President, Mrs. Roby
Cole Welch being absent, the Vice-President, Mrs. Pearl M. T.
Remington, '94, presided.
On this occasion the following speakers were introduced by
Mrs. Mary Tobin Lynch in an able manner: Mr. Walter E.
Ranger, Mr. John L. Alger, Principal of the School, Mrs.
Sarah Marble Shedd, Miss Deming, who brought us greetings
from Professor Wilson, now Principal of Washington State
Normal School. An address was also made by Miss Clara
Craig, Supervisor of the Training Department, and Miss Gard-
ner, of Warren, R. I.
From the first meeting of this Association to this day the
spirit of gratitude and loyalty to our Alma Mater for what
she has done, and is still doing for her children, is in a measure
widening and growing each year. Many would attest they owe
to her what has helped to make their lives of service, by coming
into close touch with the broad minded men and women that
have made our Normal School a credit to our State and an
influence which is felt across the continent.
The following are the present officers: President, Mrs.
Charles Howard Remington, '94, Vice-President, Mrs.
Jeannette Hasten Gory, '91, Secretary, Miss Ruth C. Earle, '90,
Treasurer, Miss Mary L. Currier, '90.
Mrs. Charles E. Gilbert, '87,
Miss Mabel Frances Stone, '01,
Miss Anna Potter Burdick, '03,
Miss Mildred Louise Sampson, '04,
Miss Beatrice Gill, '05.
Honorary Presidents, Mrs. J. Herbert Shedd and Miss
JOHN L, ALGER,
Courses of Study and Training
of the Rhode Island Normal
The school offers five courses of study, as follows :
1. A general course of two and one-half years, which pre-
pares for teaching in the primary and grammar grades of the
2. A kindergarten-primary course of the same length.
3. A general course of three years, including the work of
either of the above courses, with extra electives.
4. A special course of one year for teachers of experience.
5. A course for college graduates. This may be taken in
one year or in one and one-half years, according to the student's
previous preparation and his need for experience in the train-
It is expected that students who enter the Normal School will
show a reasonable degree of proficiency in the elementary
subjects. Students entering the Normal School in September
may now elect a three-year course, including such reviews as
may be needed, with a larger number of electives than can be
taken in the regular course of two and one-half years. This
will give a richer and a somewhat easier course for those who
need the extra time, or are able to take it. Students who
have not had the required high school drawing, or high school
courses of reviews of the elementary subjects, should, as a rule,
take this three-year course.
The work of the school is thoroughly professional from the
first. Many electives are offered, including advanced courses
200 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
and training in kindergarten subjects and in the various forms
of the manual arts.
Students begin their observation in the kindergarten during
their first term, having a weekly conference with the Kinder-
garten Supervisor for a discussion of what they &ee and of
underlying principles. This is followed by weekly observa-
tion in the grades, and conferences with the Supervisor of
Training, or general lectures by the faculty.
At the beginning of the second year there is more definite
work, with observation of special lessons in all grades and the
preparation of lesson plans in the different school subjects.
For the fourth half-year the students are divided into groups
and assigned to particular grades for one period daily of obser-
vation and teaching. At intervals the groups are changed and
the students assigned to different grades. Carefully prepared
plans for the lessons that are to be taught must be submitted in
advance for criticism. The students in a group teach in turn
for a definite number of weeks, the other members of the group
assisting in the preparation of plans and sharing in the
criticism. Constant use of the teaching experience and of the
lesson plans is made in the various classes.
The fifth half-year is spent entirely in the training schools.
As far as possible each student-teacher is given charge of a
room under regular city or country conditions. Two such
rooms are under the direction of a critic teacher, whose entire
time is given to this work.
In the kindergarten-primary course the observation after the
first half-year is largely in the kindergarten and primary grades.
The forenoons of the fourth half-year are spent as assistants
in the Normal School and in the city kindergartens. For the
fifth half-year the students in this course are in training in the
This system of training embodies to a remarkable extent the
recommendations of the ''Report of the Committee of Fifteen
on the Training of Teachers." After the first preliminary
teaching in the Observation School, student-teachers are
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 201
trained, not by making them assistants or substitutes, or by
giving them small groups of children, but by placing them in
charge of regular schools under such conditions as they will
meet after graduation. Here during five months of specific
training they are thrown on their own resources to a large
extent. They learn to master the work of one grade and to
teach with due regard for the development of the children ; and
they gain that close contact with child life, so essential to a
good teacher, which can be gained only by one who is in charge
of her own children.
Observation and Training Schools.
The observation school comprises a kindergarten and the
eight grades of the city schools, with about forty pupils to a
room. The rooms are furnished with the best appliances.
The children in this school come from a regular city district.
Others from outside the district are admitted on the payment
of tuition at the rate of $32 a year for the kindergarten and
primary grades, or $40 a year for the grammar grades.
The training schools, in which the Seniors teach for the last
twenty weeks of each course, are located in different parts of
Those who would govern others must first learn to govern
themselves. The student body of the Rhode Island Normal
School is a self-governing democracy. Every student is a
member of a society, whose life and activities is regulated by
laws enacted by the student body, after full and free discussion,
and enforced, as far as enforcement is necessary, by officers
of their own choosing. Officially this self-governing body is
"The Students' League of the Rhode Island Normal School."
The machinery of the League is of the simplest sort : a presi-
dent, vice-president and secretary, with representatives chosen
from the various classes constituting the executive committee
of the League.
202 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
This committee exercises a general supervision of school
affairs ; to it are referred not only many questions of general
policy, but all matters of order and discipline, and its recom-
mendations, when ratified by the League, become the laws of
the school, subject only to final appeal to the principal.
Organized in the fall of 1910, the League has already
developed large possibilities of usefulness, and cultivates among
the girls, habits of thoughtful responsibility, deliberation, and
self control, which will find expression in happy and well-
ordered school rooms.
THE TRAINING DEPARTMENT.
In the report, year ending June 30, 1893, made by the
Principal William E. Wilson, A. M., he says : "The model and
training school which you are about to open for the use of the
Normal School is unique in some of its features and will be
an experiment as regards these peculiarities. There will be
a good deal of interest directed toward it and its success will
be a matter of great importance.
Mrs. Sarah F. Bliss, Principal of the Training School,
comes from the State Normal College, at Albany, N. Y., hav-
ing previously had charge of the Training School at Saratoga
Springs, and having been a teacher in Purdue University in
Indiana, Miss Edith Goodyear comes from the Training School
in New Haven, Conn., Miss Bosworth from Somerville, Mass.,
Miss Clara Craig, Miss Phebe E. Wilbur, and Miss Alice W.
Case have been eminently successful teachers in the public
schools of Providence."
Extracts: Report of the Trustees of the State Normal
'The chief feature of the year's history has been the opening
of the new model and training school. This school is situated
on Benefit street, at the corner of Halsey street in the building
CLARA E. CRAIG.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 203
formerly used by the City as a grammar school and latterly as
a primary school. The building has been partly remodeled
and added to, so that now it contains twelve rooms, fitted up
in excellent style with all modern conveniences.
"This school is the result of a series of efforts and move-
ments on the part of both the Trustees of the Normal School
and the city authorities, extending over a number of years, but
which for one cause and another were never able to come to a
"The first result of the establishment of this school has
been very apparent in the increased zeal, enthusiasm, and
genuine professional activity which it has awakened in the
Normal School itself. It has seemed to bring the actual work
of teaching so much nearer the pupils, it has made the object
of their studies so much more real, that it has quite trans-
formed the school. Its very existence has acted as an inspira-
tion to even the youngest pupils in the school, and were we to
derive no more specific benefits from it, it were a question
whether it would not pay for our share of its cost in this way."
"The training department has been in operation now two
years and we can begin to estimate its value in the work of the
Normal School. This department has cost the Normal
School a good deal besides the expense of carrying it on, but it
has been of inestimable service. The study of education and
teaching, with concrete illustrations much of the time before
the student and in her own experience, is a very much more
invigorating and -broadening exercise than when pursued
abstractly and theoretically.
"The establishment of the school was an experiment, of
course, and one which has been made under trying conditions,
but it has certainly been a successful one. The principal and
2O4 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
teachers of the training school department have all earned and
gained the gratitude of the students who have taken their
turn in that interesting part of the course."
Extract from Report of the Board of Examiners of the
Rhode Island Normal School, 1896.
"The training school is rendered very attractive to a visitor
by the fine moral atmosphere which pervades it. The
discipline is most humane and most inspiring. The whole
influence of the critic teachers seems well adapted to draw
forth all that is best in the minds and hearts of the children.
The value of the school to children is evidently not diminished
by its being made tributary to the Normal School."
The chief honor of establishing the training school belongs
to Principal W. E. Wilson, whose clear, educational ideals and
strong qualities as a teacher made him an authority in all
matters relating to the school. It is true that he was assisted
by Superintendent Horace S. Tarbell, Superintendent of the
Schools of Providence, by Mr. Frank E. Thompson and
Commissioner Stockwell of the Board of Trustees, but the
initiation must be cheerfully granted to Mr. Wilson, and its
success shared by him with a very able corps of training
teachers from the first.
Providence has nine training schools, Pawtucket two,
Cranston two, Harrington one, Central Falls one, East Provi-
dence one, Warwick one, and Woonsocket one.
PRINCIPAL R. I. NORMAL SCHOOL
Principals and Assistants.
Joshua Kendall was born in Waltham (now Belmont),
Mass., Jan. 4, 1828; entered the Bridgewater, Mass., Normal
School, March, 1845; was assistant in that school, 1847-48;
graduated from Harvard College, 1853; was chosen as head-
master of Mr. Stephen M. Weld's private school for boys,
remaining four years; married Phebe Mitchell, sister of the
astronomer, of Nantucket, Mass., Sept., 1854; in 1857, took
charge of the .Huidekoper Academy for young ladies in
Meadville, Pa. ; took charge, as principal of the Rhode Island
Xormal School, at Bristol, R. I., 1860, which he resigned in
1864, to take charge of a school at Cambridge, Mass., to fit
boys for college.
A son, William M., was born in 1856, who is now of the
firm of McKim, Meade and White, architects, New York.
Mrs. Kendall died in 1907. Present address: 47 Chester
street, West Somerville, Mass.
DANIEL AND HARRIET W. GOODWIN.
Two of the strongest personalities of the first Normal
School were Daniel Goodwin and his sister Harriet W. Good-
win. Both added to large natural talents superior training
and culture, crowned with the warmth and gentility of highly
sympathetic and benevolent natures. Such persons always
merit and achieve success in teaching, and Mr. and Miss
206 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Goodwin won the highest regard and love of all the students
who came under their instruction. As I remember the
school at Bristol, the Goodwins were "the bright, particular
stars" of the faculty. Both taught, governed and inspired in
a way that told mightily on conduct and character. It was
not so much what they taught as the life and soul that backed
and inspired the teaching. And this potent influence flowed
as a natural stream from a living fountain.
Public education lost two very potential forces when Mr.
Goodwin decided to enter the Christian ministry, and when
Miss Goodwin became the wife of S. S. Drury, M. D. of
Bristol, R. I. Mr. Goodwin is now Rev. Daniel Goodwin
D. D., Episcopal rector at East Greenwich, R. I. and 'Mrs.
Drury resides in Bristol, the mother of a fine family.
JAMES C. GREENOUGH.
SUSAN C. BANCROFT. MARY L. JEWETT.
These names are inseparably associated with each other and
with the foundation, teaching and guidance of the Rhode
Island Normal School James C. Greenough, Susan C. Ban-
croft and Mary L. Jewett. All were born and educated in
the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts; all were education-
ally the product of the Westfield Normal School. They im-
bibed and taught its inductive philosophy and its Socratic
methods. It was a great good fortune for the aspiring youth
of Rhode Island to come under the strong influence of this
distinguished trio of teachers, whose ideals became the work-
ing models of so many teachers of our own and neighboring
states. It is not too much to say that through the Saturday
Normal classes as well as the regular classes every teacher
and school in Rhode Island was instructed and uplifted by
these leaders of professional teaching. It is not too much to
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 207
say that the women teachers of Rhode Island were and are as
deeply indebted to the personal services of Misses Bancroft
and Jewett as to those of Mr. Greenough. Together they
set the pace, the standards of the profession, and the teachers
of Rhode Island have been loyal followers. Proudly may
the teachers say, "I was a pupil of James C. Greenough, Susan
C. Bancroft and Mary L. Jewett in the early days of the
Rhode Island Normal School."
James C. Greenough, son of Thomas and Mary J. Green-
ough, was born in Wendell, Mass., August 15, 1829; grad-
uated from Williams College in 1860, with degree of A. B. ;
1873, A. M. ; Brown University, A. M., 1876; LL.D. Berea
College, Ken., 1899; married Jeannie A. Bates, Westfield
Mass., 1860; First Assistant State Normal School, Westfield,
1856-1871; Principal State Normal School, R. I., 1871-1883;
Principal Mass. Agricultural College, 1883-1886; Principal
State Normal School, Westfield, 1887-97; A1 P ha Delta Phi >
Williams; Phi Beta Kappa, Brown; Author, Evolution of the
Elementary Schools of Great Britain, 1903 , History of West-
field, Mass; Contributor to various periodicals; Address,
MRS. J. HERBERT SHEDD.
Miss Sarah Marble, a graduate of the Friends School,
Providence, R. L, and a successful young teacher, entered the
Rhode Island State Normal School in the fall of 1871, as a
student and was graduated in June, 1872; before her gradu-
ation she was invited to become a teacher in the school the
following year and she continued as such until June, 1905, when
she became the wife of J. Herbert Shedd of Providence.
In 1873 sne attended the first summer school at Harvard
College and studied chemistry, a subject she was teaching,
2o8 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
under Prof. Charles E. Munroe. A few years later Miss
Marble attended the summer school at Bowdoin College, taking
mineralogy, which she was teaching, under Prof. Henry Car-
michael, and chemistry under the late lamented and distin-
guished Prof. F. C. Robinson. She availed herself of a winter
course in mineralogy, given at the Institute of Technology
by Prof. R. H. Richards. When called upon to teach
rhetoric, she again went to Harvard for methods under Prof.
Miss Marble always had some classes in English Literature
and to increase her usefulness in this line as well as to give
her pleasure, she was given leave of absence to lengthen her
summer vacation and in 1885 visited literary shrines in Europe.
Until about 1900 every person on the occasion of his gradu-
ation read an essay: Miss Marble trained every graduate for
the public reading of the essay; she esteemed excellent oral
reading an important factor in the development of character;
she added to her natural gifts in ths line of work by counsel
and lessons with the late Prof. Lewis B. Munroe, and others.
Miss Marble has said that what she attempted to do, was to
build character in her students which would help them to
usefulness and happiness, and the opportunity came in helping
them to prepare for the teaching profession.
When Miss Marble declined a re-election the Trustees of the
Rhode Island Normal School passed resolutions of which the
following is an extract
"A member of the first graduating class and since that time
an indefatigable and 'beloved teacher, she has held a high place
in the esteem of all the friends of the school. In her the pupils
have ever found a well equipped instructor, a wise counsellor,
a true and sympathetic friend. To them she has taught more
than text-book, viz., the beauty and wisdom of a true life.
THOMAS J. MORGAN.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 209
She has exemplified with her associates that professional spirit
which marks a sense of the teacher's calling. She has been
an element of strength and honor in all the administrations of
THOMAS J. MORGAN.
Gen. Morgan followed James C. Greenough as Principal
of the State Normal School, a very difficult task. Mr.
Greenough and his associates had set a high standard for
himself and all his successors and had established an educa-
tional and moral momentum which could not be easily or
Gen. Morgan had been both a teacher and a soldier.
In the civil war he was brevetted Brigadier General for
conspicuous valor and efficiency. After the war he had risen
to the rank of Principalship in a State Normal School in New
York, when he was invited to Rhode Island in 1883. The
Normal School was in fine condition in its Benefit street home.
Gen. Morgan's mind was alert, quick, aggressive. His moral
character was strong, vigorous, magnetic; leadership was a
native gift ; action a controlling purpose. He inspired to
being through doing. Greenough inspired to doing through
being. Both were strong men on different lines and both
impressed the Normal School with strong, individual conceits,
and the pupils of each rise up to honor them. Morgan was a
vigorous thinker and a forcible speaker. In the role of a
leader and an orator he will be long remembered in Rhode
Island by the prohibitionists and politicians of 1885-87.
On the election of Benjamin Harrison to the Presidency of
the United States, in 1888, Gen. Morgan was invited to
become Commissioner of Indian Affairs under the new
administration, for which he was well qualified, and in that
210 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
service he closed his life. It may be said that the prosperity of
the Normal School was enhanced along many lines through
Gen. Morgan's administration, and his associates and students
gratefully remember his personality and influence.
GEORGE A'BNER LITTLEFIELD.
George Abner Littlefield, principal of the State Normal
School from 1889 to 1892, was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts,
on February nth, 1851. He was the son of James and
Francis (Blair) Littlefield, his father being a native of Ken-
nebunk, Maine, and his mother of Campton, New Hampshire.
At the age of fourteen years he was thrown upon his own
resources, as many New England boys in small farming com-
munities have been, and began to work his way through
school. He was graduated from Kimball Union Academy at
Meriden, N. H., and then entered Harvard University, from
which he graduated in the class of 1878. Throughout the
period of his education he was teaching in the towns of Wey-
mouth, Danvers and Maiden successively, in the latter town
being the first superintendent of schools. From Maiden he
went to Lawrence as superintendent, and while there was
elected, in 1880, one of the supervisors of the Boston schools.
In 1882 he was called to Newport, Rhode' Island, as superin-
tendent of schools, and served seven years in that office, until
1889, when he came to Providence as Principal of the State
Normal School. On July i, 1892, he resigned as principal, to
enter the profession of law, having been admitted to the
Rhode Island bar in 1889. For several years he practised law
in the office of Thurston, Ripley & Co., but in 1895 opened his
During the time that he was connected actively with edu-
cational matters, Mr. Littlefield occupied various offices, in-
GEORGE A. LITTLER ELD,
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 211
eluding the presidencies of the Rhode Island Institute of
Instruction, the New England Association of School Super-
intendents, the New England Normal Council and the Ameri-
can Institute of Instruction.
Mr. Littlefield served on two occasions as Representative
to the General Assembly from Providence, the first term from
1895 to l %97 an( * the second in 1900-1901. He was a Repub-
lican in politics, and as a campaign orator took an active part
in politics for a number of years. As an orator he is best
remembered for his addresses on Abraham Lincoln and Dan-
iel Webster, which he delivered many times throughout New
For eleven years Mr. Littlefield was Secretary of the Rhode
Island Business Men's Association. At the time of his death
he was eminent Commander of St. John's Commandery of
Knights Templar, of Providence, and throughout his life took
a deep interest in Masonry.
He was married on November 24, 1879 to Emma Warren
Bancroft of Maiden. Of the six children born to them five
are now living Mrs. Kinsley Blodgett, wife of Rev. Kinsley
Blodgett of Worcester, Massachusetts, James Bancroft Little-
field, attorney-at-law in Providence, who was associated with
his father in practice, Henry Willis Littlefield, now in busi-
ness in Buffalo, New York, Ivory Littlefield, now a student in
the graduating class of the Harvard Law School, and Barbara
Littlefield, a student in the Junior Class in Pembroke College,
Mr. Littlefield died suddenly in Providence on August 28,
1906, as a result of blood-poisoning, following an ulcerated
212 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
WILLIAM E. WILSON.
Mr. Wilson is a born educator, with few superiors in the
United States. He entered the Rhode Island Normal School
as a teacher and left as Principal after a splendid career of
more than eleven years. His growth to normal stature was
natural and rapid, and was due to gifts, temperament, and
ideals of a peculiar, genetic type. The inductive philosophy
was his mental process as it was with Greenough. Every step
in the education of a child from its birth through the school
curriculum was marked and measured with logical exactness,
along clean lines of procedure. Guess-work never entered
his mental laboratory. Like the skilled mariner, he followed
the chart of educational progress, guided by the compass of a
reasonable philosophy, and illumined by the lamp of Heaven's
Mr. Wilson's pupils became philosophers by induction, ly
the true teaching impulses and inspiration. The machinery of
his mental processes were so clear and transparent that it be-
came an easy matter to adjust their own mental processes by
his, so far as personal individuality is transferable. His stu-
dents became investigators along the lines of natural methods
and can never lose the guidance of a great teacher and friend,
for Mr. Wilson was more than an intellectual guide, he was a
true and sympathetic friend. Every teacher and student knew
that he was always near to be a generous, hearty, sincere,
manly helper for seven days in every week and fifty-two weeks
in every year. He taught by example the value of the person-
al, magnetic, inspirational side of the teacher, independent of
learning and training. The students of Greenough came back
to their Alma Mater to find a man who exalted character to
the seat of honor, and service as the goal of all attainment,
as did their honored leader.
WILLIAM E. WILSON.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 213
The great work of Mr. Wilson's principalship was the es-
tablishment of the Training School, now in successful opera-
tion in several towns and cities. Mr. Wilson is generous
to allow Superintendent Tarbell of Providence an im-
portant place in the inception of the work, but the credit of the
methods and their great success belong to Mr. Wilson.
To-day Normal Educators come from all parts of the land
to study and adopt the training methods set in operation by
It must be said, too, that whatever the architectural beauty
of the present Normal building may be, its interior plans were
Mr. Wilson's creation, for which he has never had the credit
that is due him. There was no detail of the plans as finally
adopted, but had the careful study of the practical mind of Mr.
Wilson. If it is a model Normal School building, the credit
belongs to William E. Wilson, whose knowledge of school
needs, and whose supervisory thought incorporated the es-
sential elements of a finished structure in the building, which
will be a monument to his industrious devotion to the making
of men and women, by well planned appliances of education.
From what has been said it must necessarily follow that a
grave mistake, to use no harsher word, was committed and
an irreparable loss sustained, when Mr. Wilson was inot
permitted to retain his principalship of the Rhode Island Nor-
mal School and enjoy the fruits of his creative work.
Rhode Island's loss was Washington's gain, for on the
Pacific Slope, Mr. Wilson is now doing his best work, in a
Normal School of his later creation, where unfettered by
political craft, he can work out his high ideals of teacher-
ship and citizenship.
214 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Mr. Fred Cowing was born in Medford, Mass. ; prepared
for college at the High School in his native town and was
graduated at Tufts College with a high standing. Both
these courses were accompanied by strenuous work to secure
income. Immediately on graduation he began teaching, and
taught for several years in college preparatory schools, both
public and private.
Several years were then spent as Commissioner of Educa-
tion for the State of New Hampshire. The subject of
his thesis for the degree of Ph. D. from Tufts College was,
"The Public School System of New Hampshire."
His labors in New Hampshire in improving standards of
teaching and in securing educational facilities for the rural as
for the city schools were marked by the successful appreciation
which his ability and devotions assured.
Mr. Cowing was the first principal to occupy the new
Normal School building on Capitol Hill, where he entered
heartily into already formulated plans for advancing and
strengthening the work of the school in its courses of study,
and for the practical training of its students in training schools
inaugurated by Principal Wilson.
His administration was marked by able work, cheerfulness,
and by appreciation of the abilities and efforts of his associate
teachers. His able counsels to his pupils and graduates have
sent into this State teachers trained to a strict sense of duty.
Mr. Gowing's administration with our school, after three
years was closed, that he might accept an offer with the
D. C. Heath Co., with which company he has since been
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 215
CHARLES S. CHAPIN.
Charles S. Chapin is a son of a prominent New England
clergyman, the Rev. Daniel E. Chapin, and was born in
Westfield, Mass. He graduated at the Wesleyan University,
Middletown, Conn., in the first honor rank, having received
nine prizes during his course, on competition, in scholarship,
and public speaking. He was granted the degree of Doctor
of Science by Brown University in 1908.
Soon after graduation from college he studied law and be-
came a member of the Massachusetts Bar. He practiced law
in the office of Congressman John Thayer for two years.
On account of eye trouble he discontinued the practice of law
and accepted a position as assistant superintendent of schools
in Middletown, Conn. At the same time he became assistant
in the English department of Wesleyan University. He
taught successfully in Worcester, Mass., Classical High
School and the Hartford, Conn. High School ; he was principal
of the Fitcriburg, Ma'ss. High School, from 1891-1896.
Under his administration the school grew from 285 to 730
pupils. In 1896 he was made principal of the Westfield,
Mass. State Normal School, at a great crisis in its history, the
principal and five assistant teachers having resigned and the
membership having fallen to sixty-three pupils. During his
principalship of five years the membership grew to be 150, a
training school building was erected at a cost of $50,000 and an
appropriation of $95,000 was secured from the Legislature for
the erection of a new dormitory to replace the old one. In
1901 he became principal of the Rhode Island Normal School,
which was also undergoing a good deal of public criticism.
"When Dr. Chapin became principal of the Rhode Island
State Normal School in 1901, the number of students was
230. When he left it in 1908, it had grown to 325. He may
2i6 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
justly be called the father of the present system of practice
teaching. In 1901 the school had only five small rooms outside
the Normal School building in which its students might prac-
tice. Dr. Chapin secured from the City of Providence
eighteen rooms and extended the system into Central Falls,
Cranston, Bristol, Harrington and Warwick, so that, at the
close of his principalship there were thirty-six rooms in these
cities and towns devoted exclusively to the use of the Rhode
Island Normal School for practice."
In December, 1907, he was elected principal of the new
State Normal School to be erected at Mbntclair. This
school is located on a plot of twenty-five acres, on a site
commanding a view of northern New Jersey and of parts of
lower New York City. The school has been a success from
the first. Beginning with a membership of 187 on September
15, 1908, it enrolled in the school year, 1910, 443 students.
It has reached the limit of its capacity, and enlargement of the
building is now under serious consideration. It is probable
that a dormitory will be built in the near future, and that the
school is destined to become one of the leading Normal
Schools of the country.
Charles S. Chapin has declined the superintendency of
six important cities, a college presidency, and the principalship
of several State Normal Schools. He is a member of the
National Educational Association, the New York School-
masters Club, and several other educational organizations.
JOHN LINCOLN ALGER, A. M.
John Lincoln Alger is the son of Rev. N. W. Alger, for-
merly a well known clergyman of Vermont, and a descendant
of the Alger family that settled in Bridgewater, Massachu-
setts, in the early colonial period. He prepared for college at
CHARLES S. CHAPIN,
PRINCIPAL R. I. NORMAL SCHOOL
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 217
Vermont Academy, and graduated from Brown University
in 1890. Reference to the college records shows that he took
high rank in scholarship, that he was awarded the prize for
excellence in mathematics and physics throughout the course,
and that he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa at the end of
his junior year. In April of his senior year he was excused
from further attendance at college in order that he might
accept a position as substitute teacher in the high school at
After graduating from college Mr. Alger taught for two
years in the English High School of Providence, and was for
three years following, instructor in mathematics at Brown
University. In 1895 he became Superintendent of Schools
at Bennington, Vermont, and soon after was appointed to the
added position of examiner of teachers for the seventeen
towns of Bennington County. After five years in this capacity
he was called to the principalship of the State Normal School
at Johnson, Vermont. In this position he served for four
years, and upon withdrawing to take the principalship of his
old preparatory school, Vermont Academy, he was appointed
by the Governor a member of the State Board of Normal
School Commissioners, where he had an important part in
the directive control of the normal schools of Vermont.
In 1908 Mr. Alger was chosen to succeed Dr. Chapin as
principal of the Rhode Island Normal School.
FREDERICK W. TILTOX.
Born in Cambridge, Mass., 1839; educated in Cambridge
schools, and graduated from Harvard, 1862; studied at Got-
tingen University, Germany, 1862-63 ; taught in Worcester,
Mass., 1863-66; superintendent of schools, Newport, R. L,
1867-71 ; succeeded Dr. Samuel H. Taylor as principal of
2i8 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., 1871-72; was member of
Board of Education and trustee of the Normal School at its
founding; headmaster Rogers High School, Newport, R. 1.,
1873-90; lived in Europe four years, 1890-94, when two sons
graduated from German universities; is vice-president Cam-
bridge Savings Bank, director of Harvard Trust Company,
and trustee of estates.
Address, F. W. Tilton, Harvard Trust Company, Cam-
Miss CHARLOTTE E. DEMING.
Miss Charlotte E. Deming was called to the Rhode Island
State Normal School in 1879. She had been graduated from
the Westfield, Mass., Normal School under the principalship
of John W. Dickinson, who was recognized as the leading
Pestalozzian of this country. Her further preparation con-
sisted of teaching for several years in the schools for observa-
tion connected with the school of which she is a graduate and
of two years' teaching in the Wollaston School in Quincy
under Colonel Parker's superintendence. During Miss
Deming's connection with our school, she attended courses of
lectures at Harvard and Oxford Universities and enjoyed a
summer's work under Alexander Winchell of Michigan
University, besides home and foreign travel at different
For the first fourteen years her work at our school covered
a wide range of subjects from primary methods to geometry,
but after the department work was adopted under Principal
Wilson, Miss Deming taught geography, physiography, and
geology, making a good working collection of illustrative
material and securing a valuable department library.
She severed her teaching ties with the Normal School in
MISS CHARLOTTE E. DEMING.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 219
1908. Every pupil of the school who sat under her instruction
felt the grand impetus of it and went out to the world, having
been touched by an influence for good which cannot be meas-
ured in words, for her "Works do follow her."
CLARA E. CRAIG.
Miss Clara E. Craig, Supervisor of the Training Department
of the State Normal School has been identified with the life of
the Institution, practically throughout her career as a teacher.
A native of Rhode Island and a product of its schools, she was
called to the position of critic teacher when the present admir-
able and effective system of training was inaugurated.
Miss Craig's early days as a member of the faculty brought
her in close association with those former principals and teach-
ers whose story of service is indelibly written upon the record
of the school. She is the only member of the present faculty
who is able to recall experiencees in the Benefit Street School.
The younger teachers of Rhode Island have all, at one time
or another lived under the urgency of Miss Craig's ideals.
Moreover, her "girls" in training have remained her friends
in life. She is active in the extension work of the Normal
School and responds to many demands for institute work not
only in Rhode Island but also in the other New England
States. She teaches a sane and sympathetic pedagogy.
Miss Craig organized the Rhode Island Association of
Women Teachers and is now its vice-president.
Memories of the Founding.
BY RE\ 7 . GEORGE L. LOCKE.
I fear I have but little to say that is to the purpose of this
occasion. In the first place I am not, in the conventional
sense of the term, an Educator, but a plain country parson.
With a very few exceptions, so far as I know, the members
of this audience are, moreover, strangers to me, as am I also
a stranger to them. And this noble structure in which we are
assembled, while it has been from the time of its erection
familiar to my eye as one of the most imposing and beautiful
architectural features of the capitol city of Rhode Island, yet
I have to own that never until this morning have I crossed
its threshold. Why then, it may reasonably enough be asked,
am I, a stranger, as it were, in a strange land, here to occupy
valuable time? The answer to that question will bring me at
once to the core of the little that I have to say on this oc-
Stranger as I am to-day in this splendid building and to
the important activities which it enshrines and to those who
direct them, to those also who are to-day and in past years
have been trained therein to a noble work on behalf of the
State, nevertheless I modestly claim the right to count myself
one of those who in days long past, occupied themselves in
organizing and promoting the educational movement which
was destined to issue and culminate in the R. I. Normal
School as it is known and honored to-day.
REV. GEORGE L. LOCKE. D. D.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 221
Forty- four years ago, from my native city of Boston I had
come as a young man to take charge of the Church in Bristol,
over which I have still the oversight. In Bristol I found
current the tradition of a State Normal School which some
years before had come to a peaceful end in that quiet town.
At the time of my coming the very modest and limited
premises of the defunct institution was occupied by the local
High School. Few in the audience, I dare say, have enjoyed
for so long a time as I have done the privilege of the acquaint-
ance of that conspicuous representative of the educational
interests of Rhode Island and of New England, whom to-day
you delight to honor here. I count it my additional privilege
that my acquaintance with Mr. Bicknell began in those early
days when, as a young man, he was still in the rank and file of
your profession, a practical teacher, the Master of the Bris-
tol High School. As a member myself of the local school
board, and more particularly interested in the school under
his charge, I should have had larger opportunity of cultivat-
ing his acquaintance had he not retired from his position
shortly after my arrival in the town.
I have but an old man's memory and it is not tenacious
of the details of my activities in that remote part of forty
years ago. But it must have been not much later than the
time just referred to that I recall myself to memory as a
member of the then recently established State Board of Edu-
cation and in that capacity again brought into association
with Mr. Bicknell, by that time become Commissioner of
Public Schools, e.v-officio Secretary of the Board, and much
concerned to bring to practical issue the long-growing interest
in the State in the establishment of a new Normal School, to
222 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
be located in Providence and organized on broader lines than
the old one had been.
Acting on the authority committed to it by the General
Assembly to move in this direction, the Board appointed a
Committee of three, including the Commissioner, to investi-
gate the work of prominent Normal Schools and to secure
the most competent available man to take charge of the pro-
posed institution. As one of this Committee I recall the long
tour of inquiry which we made. I recall a visit to a famous
school of that day in Oswego, N. Y., in which certain new
methods of child training were being tried with much reported
success. I recall another visit to a celebrated institution in
Terre Haute, Indiana, from which we sought unsuccessfully
to steal away the head, a gentleman who subsequently occu-
pied a more conspicuous position in the world of Education,
for which position indeed I think he was already engaged
at the time of our visit. With the Principal of one of the
Normal Schools of New York, in the northern part of the
State, which we did not visit, we had however some unsuc-
cessful correspondence in an attempt to secure his services.
Another interesting visit was to the State School at Albany,
famous at that time under the charge of the late Prof. Alden,
whose classes, I remember, were receiving evidently efficient
scholastic training, much on the plan of an ordinary college
curriculum, Dr. Alden being quite frank in his statement to
us to the effect that technical education in Pedagogy as a
preparation for teaching was in his judgment quite subordinate
to higher intellectual training.
We had traveled far, had made various interesting obser-
vations, had learned something about Normal Schools, but
when we re-entered Massachusetts on our homeward journey
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 223
the main object of our tour was still unachieved. How com-
pletely, however, that purpose was presently accomplished as
the final outcome of our brief visit to Westfield it would be
superfluous for me to undertake to set forth to those who
have any knowledge of this Rhode Island institution from its
beginnings under Prof. Greenough and during the years of its
growth under his wise and efficient administration. There will
be many in this audience, his pupils during those years or his
associates on the teaching staff, to whom his memorable pres-
ence on this platform this morning, and his few vigorous words
of response to your greeting, will have set in motion currents
of joyful recollection and thrills of pleasure.
Of the history of this School during its earliest and experi-
mental days in the disused meeting-house which we had
secured for its first abiding place my recollections are indis-
tinct, for the reason, I fear, that I made it too little the object
of my attention. Much more definitely I recall my experiences
as a more frequent visitor of the School in the commodious
brick building on Benefit street, which the assured success of
our educational enterprise had induced the authorities of the
State to place at our disposal. I cherish the recollection of
those experiences of mine, especially of the association into
which I was brought with the honored Principal, both in the
school and in his home, and with his associate teachers, whom
by this time I had come to know more familiarly and to hold
in high regard.
I had occasion not long ago to apply to the Attorney Gen-
eral of Rhode Island on behalf of one who had foolishly got
himself within the clutches of the law. I knew this import-
ant officer of the State only by name or so I supposed
and his name had not happened to suggest to me anything in
particular. To my surprise, this formidable official greeted
224 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
me as an old friend, and I found, to my delight, that it was
he whom long ago I had known as a young lad in the Provi-
dence home of his father, Prof. Greenough.
But I fear I am illustrating another of the weaknesses of ad-
vanced years. I am growing garrulous. As I cannot now
easily get off the personal note, which I fear I have been
sounding too loudly, I will hasten to relieve the patience of
At a somewhat later date than that of the beginnings of the
new Normal School, the General Assembly committed to the
Board of Education an additional responsibility, that of find-
ing suitable premises, adapting them to their changed uses,
organizing and administering a new institution, the "State
Home and School," Mr. Stockwell being at that time the Com-
missioner of Public Schools, Secretary of the Board, and its
chiefly active working member. In the discharge of this large
responsibility in its various aspects I had my humble part.
After this new institution was finally organized and well
under way, personal considerations led to the resignation of
my position on the Board of Education and somewhat later
I accepted an unsought appointment to a less onerous position
on one of the other Boards of State Administration. The
former act of course terminated my connection with the Nor-
mal School, a severing of relations so agreeable in the rec-
ollection of them that I have many times been disposed to re-
gret the step as having been perhaps too hasty taken.
My resignation was in the far-back days of the old home on
Benefit street. At that time, so far as I can recall, there was
as yet no definite plan for a new building, no anticipation, I
am sure, of so grand a structure as this in which we are as-
sembled to-day. That after it has stood so many years as one
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 225
of the most familiar and, by virture of its elevated position, one
of the two most commanding, architectural features of this
beautiful city, I should have been, until an hour ago, a stranger
to its interior, is little to my credit. And yet may I venture to
hope that I have succeeded in establishing the claim which I
made at the outset, of having been concerned, however re-
motely, measuring by the chain of cause and effect, in its
If I have thus succeeded I shall, further, have justified those
who had the arrangement of the program for this occasion,
a justification perhaps not easy to accomplish otherwise
in having honored me with an invitation to present to this
audience some recollections of "Forty Years Ago."
WILLIAM E. WILSON,
Teacher of Physical and Biological Sciences,
1884 to 1892; Principal, 1892 to 1898.
Mr. Wilson is a native of Western Pennsylvania. His
elementary education was obtained in a rural home in a
Scotch-Irish and German community and in a district school
of the days before the civil war. Just at the close of the war
he began to prepare for college and for teaching, first at Edin-
boro State Normal School in Erie County, and later at James-
town Seminary and at Marshall College State Normal School
in West Virginia. After, six years of teaching and prepar-
atory study he entered the sophomore class of Monmouth Col-
lege at Monmouth, at Illinois, and was graduated in 1873.
He immediately became teacher of the natural sciences in
the Nebraska State Normal School at Peru, serving two years,
one term as acting principal. The following year he spent
in study and travel in Europe. Returning he taught a year
in Morgan Park Military Academy in Chicago, and then re-
turned to Nebraska and became principal of the public schools
successively at Tekamah, North Platte and Brownville. In
1 88 1 he married Miss Flora May Ramsdell of Ceredo, West
Virginia, a descendent of John and Priscilla Alden, and be-
came professor of natural sciences in Coe College at Cedar
Rapids, Iowa, and assisted in the organization of that institu-
In 1884, General Thomas J. Morgan, who had been princi-
pal of the Nebraska State Normal School when Mr. Wilson
was a teacher there, became principal of the Rhode Island
Normal School and invited Mr. Wilson to accept a position
in the school. He accepted the invitation and served as
teacher of physical and biological sciences under General
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 227
Morgan for five years and under Principal George A. Little-
field three years. In 1892 he succeeded Mr. Littlefield as
He became principal when the time was ripe for rapid de-
velopment of the school. The demand had become strong
the country over for normal trained teachers and more sub-
stantial courses were becoming established in normal schools.
The city of Providence had already begun to require grad-
uates of High schools to attend the State Normal School one
half a year before admitting them to the city training schools.
This required attendance was now increased to a year. The
regular course leading to a diploma was extended to two
years for graduates of high schools. New courses were es-
tablished and additional teachers employed. Thus strong
departments of biological science and of psychology and
child study were established and other departments reorgan-
ized to better advantage.
The two measures of fundamental importance undertaken
at this time were the establishment of the training department
and the securing of a suitable modern building for the school.
The necessity of both of these improvements to the efficiency
and the development of the institution had been ably urged
from time to time for years without immediate result. The
time for action having now arrived they were undertaken by
the trustees and pushed forward to their accomplishment.
The establishment of an efficient training school under the
circumstances surrounding the Rhode Island Normal School
at this time was a very difficult task but in its successful
accomplishment the way was opened for the larger result
already realized in the system of normal training schools in
operation in connection with the Rhode Island Normal School.
This system has been widely recognized as being based upon
228 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
sound principles and as possessing features of special value
which have been adopted with certain adaptations in other
The essential features of the plan were based upon these
1. Systematic study by observation of regular public schools
in the hands of expert teachers should precede practice teach-
2. Schools for observation should not be used for practice
by student teachers but under the sole continuous charge of
teachers selected as specially competent to do this work.
3. Practice teaching should be provided for in regular pub-
lic graded schools under special supervision. It should be
real teaching not for practice but to educate children.
4. This practice teaching should be in progressive steps,
the first of which should be the teaching of a class without
the care of other children and the last should be in charge of
a room continuously for a reasonable period of time both un-
der expert and not too continuous supervision.
The original training school of the Rhode Island Normal
School was established at the corner of Benefit and Halsey
streets in 1893. The plan upon which it was organized was
proposed by Dr. Horace S. Tarbell, then Superintendent of
schools of Providence. It was studied over and worked out
by Commissioner Stockwell and Principal Wilson in confer-
ence with Mr. Tarbell, adopted by the Board of Trustees,
approved by the school committee of Providence, and became
effective in the autumn of 1893.
Mrs. Sara F. Bliss was secured from the faculty of the
Albany Normal College for principal ; Miss Clara E. Craig of
Providence and Miss Edith Goodyear of New Haven, Conn.,
were chosen for training supervisors, and Miss Phebe Wilbur
WALTER E. RANGER.
COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 229
and Miss Alice W. Case of Providence and Miss Mary Bos-
worth of Somerville, Massachusetts, were chosen to be obser-
vation teachers. Later Miss Mary Eastburn of the Trenton,
New Jersey, State Normal School and Miss Alice E. Rey-
nolds of Norwich, Conn., came to the corps as training teach-
ers, and Miss Ada B. Bragg, Miss Grace E. Mowry and Miss
Marion A. Puffer as observation teachers.
These capable and earnest teachers found difficulties and
troubles to overcome during the first year or two of the
school's existence but to their lasting praise the training school
was successful in their hands and became indispensable to
the normal school.
The following teachers were associated with Principal Wil-
son during the years 1892 to 1898: Sarah Marble and Char-
lotte E. Deming, whom every graduate and every friend of
the normal school must honor; Emma E. Brown, Inez L.
Whipple and Mabel C. Bragg, graduates of the school and
exceptional teachers, each in a different field, loyal and true;
B. W. Hood, Alexander Bevan, Emory P. Russell and Alex-
ander Seaverns, worthy men and able teachers ; Clara F. Rob-
inson, Bertha Bass, Fannie E. Woods, gifted, faithful and
admired; Hattie Hunt, Mary Dickerson, strong and skillful,
they set high standards.
In 1898 Mr. Wilson became principal of the Washington
State Normal School at Ellensburg and found in that vast new-
region a wide and congenial field for which his experiences
in Rhode Island were a valuable preparation. He is already
among the older of the educational leaders of that vigorous
It is done. On Sept. 16, 1911, I was invited by the
Executive Committee on the Fortieth Anniversary of the
Rhode Island Normal School (new) to write and edit a volume
on its history. I accepted the work and to-day, (Oct. 21),
I am writing the last word, and hope, by the virtue of excellent
book printers and binders, to have the finished product, in the
form of a beautiful and valuable historic work, in the hands of
its readers, on or before Nov. I. I do not hesitate to say that
the book will be a revelation to the present generation of
educators of Rhode Island and of the country. "Lest we
forget" is the imperative of every hour and duty. The
teacher has few honors that surpass grateful remembrance.
Whatever appears in this volume of personal compliment
has been written without my knowledge or suggestion, and
solicited in all cases by others for independent purposes. I
should be most ungrateful not to acknowledge with supreme
gratitude, the high consideration paid my work in the founding
of the new Normal School of 1871. I entered the Commis-
sioner's office, Jan. I, 1869, when Rhode Island had no Normal
School, had tried one for eleven years, and did not want
another. When I resigned the office in 1875, to occupy a posi-
tion of greater responsibility in Boston, I left a State Normal
School so well established that "The Gates of Hell Could not
prevail against it." To-day, that Normal School is in a position
to become the first Normal College in New England. Within
this volume may be found the names of most who have been
prominent in its history. All officers, teachers, students, in
their lot and place, have done a noble service for the State and
for humanity. No true workman envies that of his associate
builder. Each will glory in the finished product, when the
Cap-stone shall be set with universal rejoicings.
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 231
I am gratefully indebted fqr the cordial aid 'of many good
people in the issuance of this book. Mr. Arthur W. Brown,
Mrs. John F. Lonsdale (Bucklin), Mrs. Dr. William F.
Kenney (Murray), Miss Gertrude Arnold, Miss Cornelia
M. Goff, Mr. E. A. Noyes and Miss Etta V. Leighton and
Mrs. Elisha Greene (Salisbury), of the Executive Committee
of the Fortieth Anniversary were its first friends and patrons.
Miss Ellen M. Haskell wrote the interesting story of the
Private Normal School, 1852-54. Mrs. Charles H. Remington
(Tillinghast), wrote the appreciative words as to Miss Craig,
and with Mr. E. A. Noyes prepared the article on the Alumni
Association. She also prepared the article on the Training
School. Mrs. Roby Cole Welch, wrote of the valuable services
of Miss Deming, Mrs. J. Herbert Shedd (Marble), and of
Thanks to Miss Coggeshall's thorough search and persistent
labor, we now have a complete catalog of all persons who
as students have been connected with the Rhode Island Normal
School from 1854 to and including 1911.
To Miss Ellen M. Haskell, Miss Rebecca Sheldon, and
Miss Ruth A. Haskell, are we obliged for a partial list of the
members of the private Normal School.
The Loose Leaf Publishing Company of Providence is
entitled to great praise for courteous conduct, prompt work,
fine typography and binding, and generous business treatment.
Men die. Institutions live. I have the glad assurance that
the spiritual edifice of character and conduct for which the
Rhode Island Normal School stands, shall hold in sacred and
immortal honor the names of all who have worthily wrought,
to the full measure of their service.
THOMAS W. BICKNELL.
October 21, 1911,
Providence, R. I.
Academic Work 16
Address, Thomas W. Bicknell 50 to 53, 75 to 91
Daniel Leach 48 to 50
Seth Padelford 46, 47
James C. Greenough 100 to 111
Mrs. Richard J. Barker 91 to 97
G. E. Whittemore 73 to 75
G. L. Locke 221 to 225
William W. Andrew 97 to 99
Alger, John L., Welcome 72, 97, 117, 216, 217
Alumni Association 194-198
Andrew, William W., Address 97 to 99
Arnold, Gertrude E 67, 68, 71
Associates of Greenough, Tributes to 110
Bancroft, Susan C 37, 38, 79, 117, 206
Baker, Jennie F 71
Barker, Mrs. Richard Jackson, Address 91 to 97
Barnard, Henry 10, 11
Barstow, Amos C 50
Bicknell, Thomas W 17, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 36,
50 to 53, 57 to 61, 68, 75 to 91, 94, 96, 100
Board of Education 18, 19, 115
Bristol, Normal School at 15, 16, 189 to 193
Brown, Arthur W 67, 68, 70, 91, 194, 227
Brown, Mrs. Geo. T 67
Carter, James G 9, 10
Campaign for a Normal School 19
Chapin, Charles S 117, 215, 216
Coggeshall, Miss Luly M 227
Colburn, Dana P 12, 13, 15, 121, 190, 192
College, Normal 75 to 91
Commission on New Normal Building 64
Committee on Fortieth Anniversary 68, 227
Concord, Vt, First Normal School 8
Course of Study at Normal School 39, 40, 199-204
Craig, Clara E 120, 219
Cross, Samuel H 19, 28, 115
Cultural Studies. . 84
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 233
Danielson, George W .*.... 105, 108
Dean, Hon. Sidney 29, 30
Declaration of Educational Principles 90
Dedication Normal Buildings. 45, 63, 65, 66
Degrees in Normal College 86
Deming, Charlotte E 117, 218
Doyle, Thomas A 48, 107
Eaton, Gen. John 27
Educational Declaration 90
Faculty of Normal College 89
Faculty of Normal School, 1854 to 1865 116
Faculty of Normal School, 1871 to 1911 117-120
Fight on Normal School 104
Finding a Principal 36, 37
First American Writers on Normal Schools 7
First Class in R. I. Normal School 124, 125
First Normal School in United States 8
First Prospectus of R. I. Normal School, 1871 38-44
First State Normal School in United States 14
Founding of First Rhode Island Normal School 12, 13, 17-32
Founding of Normal School, Memories of 220-225
Fortieth Anniversary Exercises. 67 to 111
Forty Years of Normal Work 96
Freeman, Edward L 21, 80
Freeman, Lester A 67, 68
Gardner, Ida M 71, 117
Goff, Mrs. Ira N 67
Goodwin, Daniel 16, 116, 205
Goodwin, Hannah W. (Drury). 16, 116, 189-193, 205
Cowing, Fred 117, 214
Greene, George W 19, 30, 31, 57, 80, 115
Greene, Samuel S 12, 13, 38, 116
Greenough, James C. 37, 38, 53, 54, 63, 79, 100 to 111, 117, 206, 207
Growth of Normal School 64, 142-188
Hall, Rev. Samuel R 8, 9, 10
Haskell, Ellen M 12, 13, 14, 121, 227
Haskell, Ruth A 122, 227
Heritage of Four Decades, W. W. Andrew 97 to 99
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. . 59
Homes of the State Normal School 13, 15, 42, 62 to 65, 101
Horton, N. B. & Son 65
Hymn of Dedication 55
Jewett, Mary L. (Taylor) 37, 38, 117, 206
Journal, Providence 67, 105
Kendall, Joshua. 16, 116, 192, 205
234 RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL.
Kendrick, John E 65, 115
Kenney, Mrs. W. F. 68, 71
Kingsbury, John! 15
Kingsley, J. L 7
Lawton, Mrs., Tiverton 95, 96
Leach, Rev. Daniel 38, 48, 49, 50, 115
Lectures to Schoolmasters, Hall 8
Leighton, Etta V, 68, 71
Letters and Opinions George W. Greene 57
Charles H. Fisher. . 58
W. A. Mowry 59
T. W. Higginson 59
Thomas B. Stockwell 60
Littlefield, George A 116, 210, 211
Locke, George L., Rev 38, 115, 220-225
Lonsdale, Mrs. J. F. 68, 70, 71, 111, 117
Luther, Ellen R 16, 116, 191
Mann, Horace 10, 25
Marble, Sarah Ill, 117, 194, 198, 207
Martin Hall, Architects 65
Mass Meeting at Rocky Point 25
Memories of the Founding of the Normal School, by Rev.
George L. Locke 220 to 225
Mileage Act 33
Miller, Harriette M 38, 71
Morgan, Thomas J. . 116, 209
Mowry, William A., Letter of 59
New Era in Rhode Island Education 17
Normal College 75 to 91
Normal Leaders 10
Normal School Act 32
Normal School Campaign 19
Normal School Bill in House of Representatives 30, 31
Normal School Bill in Senate 28, 29
Normal School Buildings 13, 15, 35, 42, 62 to 65, 101
Normal School, First in United States 7
Normal School Work, 1911 199 to 204
Normal Students, 1852 to 1911 121 to 188
Noyes, E. A 67, 68, 71, 194, 227
Observation Schools 201
Obstacles to Normal School 20 to 23, 102 to 107
Olmstead, Prof. D. . 7
Padelford, Seth 17, 28, 30, 45 to 47, 80, 113
Peckham, Nathaniel 30
Potter, Elisha R 11, 12, 14
RHODE ISLAND NORMAL SCHOOL. 235
Powell, Samuel 22, 29
Principal, Finding a 36, 37
Principles of Education 90, 91
Private Normal School .' 12 to 14, 121 to 123
Proceedings of Fortieth Anniversary. 70 to 111
Providence Press 24, 45, 105, 106
Ranger, Walter E. 69, 70, 97, 114
Rearword 230, 231
Remington, Mrs. C. H 68, 194, 227
Rhode Island Institute of Instruction 24
Rhode Island Schoolmaster 34
Russell, William. . 8, 12, 14
School Officers' Convention 24
School Supervision 87
Shedd, Mrs. J. H. (nee Marble) 79, 111, 117, 194, 198, 207
Sheldon, Rebecca 122, 227
Stockwell, Thomas B 60, 63, 65, 97, 108, 114, 117, 204, 228
Students' Private Normal School 121 to 123
Students' State Normal School, 1854 to 1865 124 to 141
Students' State Normal School, 1871-1911. . . 142 to 188
Student Government 201
Sumner, Arthur 12, 13, 15, 121, 124
Supervision School. . 87 to 89
Supplementary Courses 87
Saunders, Annie F. (Fielden). 116, 122
Tarbell, Horace S 228
Teachers' Institutes 18
Teachers' Greatness. 108
Three Homes of the Normal School 62 to 66
Tickenor, Elisha 7
Tilton, F. W 19, 36, 115, 217
Training School, Organization of 227
Training School 202 to 204
Trustees of State Normal School 112 to 115
Van Zandt, C. C. 24, 28, 63, 113
Verry, Nathan T 22
Vocational Work 85
Vice-Presidents' Fortieth Anniversary 68
Welch, Roby Cole 68, 194, 197, 227
Whittemore, Gilbert E 73 to 75
Wilson, William E 117, 204, 212, 213, 226 to 229
Winning the People 23, 25, 26
Woman's Advancement, Normal Schools a Factor in 91 to 97
Women as School Committee 93
Women as Leaders 95
Woodbury, Rev. Augustus 20, 26, 63, 104, 106
Alger, John L 199
Bancroft, Susan C. (Tillinghast) 54
Barker, Mrs. Richard Jackson 91
Barnard, Henry 11
Bicknell, Thomas W 28 and 75
Brown, Arthur W 67
Chapin, Charles S 216
Colburn, Dana P 15
Craig, Clara E 202
Deming, Charlotte E 218
Goodwin, Daniel. . 189
Goodwin, Hannah W. (Drury) 192
Gowing, Fred 214
Greene, Samuel S 38
Greenough, James C. 100
Kendall, Joshua 205
Littlefield, George A. 210
Locke, George L 220
Marble, Sarah (Shedd) Ill
Morgan, Thomas J 209
Noyes, E. A 71
Padelford, Seth. . . 45
Ranger, Walter E 230
Remington, Mrs. C. H. 194
Stockwell, Thomas B 60
Wilson, William E. 212
First Normal School Building, Concord, Vt. ... 7
Normal School Building, Bristol, R. I. 16
Normal School Building, 1871-1878 50
Normal School Building, Benefit St 107
Normal School Building, Capitol Hill Frontispiece